plovejoy


Paul E Lovejoy

Photo of Paul E Lovejoy

Department of History

Professor
Canada Research Chair in African Diaspora History
Distinguished Research Professor, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada

Office: York Lanes, 329
Phone: (416)736-2100 Ext: 66917
Email: plovejoy@yorku.ca
Primary website: http://www.lovejoy1943.wordpress.com/
Secondary website: http://www.africaworldpressbooks.com/harriet-tubman-series/


As Distinguished Research Professor and Canada Research Chair in African Diaspora History at York University, I have published over 30 books and 100 articles and chapters in books on African history and African diaspora history.

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PAUL E. LOVEJOY is Distinguished Research Professor, Department of History, York University, and holds the Canada Research Chair in African Diaspora History. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Director of the Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on the Global Migrations of African Peoples, and formerly a member of the UNESCO “Slave Route” Project (Section du dialogue interculturel). He is Editor of the Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora for Africa World Press, and has been awarded an Honorary Degree, Doctor of the University, University of Stirling in 2007, the President’s Research Award of Merit at York University in 2009, the Distinguished Africanist Award by the University of Texas at Austin in 2010, the Life Time Achievement Award in 2011 from the Canadian Association of African Studies, and the Teaching Award from the Faculty of Graduate Studies, York University in 2012.

Degrees

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin
M.Sc., University of Wisconsin
B.Sc., Clarkson College of Technology
Hononary Degree, Doctor of the University, University of Stirling
Director, Harriet Tubman Institute, York University

Professional Leadership

Editorial Board, Studies in Global Slavery (Damian Alan Pargas and Jeff Fynn-Paul, eds.), Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2014-2015
Advisory Board, Cátedra de Estudios de África y el Caribe (Chair in African and Caribbean Studies), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2011-2015
International Scientific Committee, UNESCO General History of Africa, 2012-2015
Board of Directors, Pan-African Universities Press, 2015
Founding Director, The Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on Africa and its Diasporas, 2008-2012
International Scientific Committee, UNESCO “Slave Route” Project, 1997-2011
General Editor, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora, Africa World Press, Trenton, NJ

Executive Committee, Advanced Research and Technology Collaboratory for the Americas (ARTCA)

Co editor, African Economic History, 1991-present

Editorial Board, Slavery and Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies, 2003-present

Editorial Board, Atlantic Studies: Literary, Cultural and Historical Perspectives, 2004-present

Conselho Consultivo da Revista, Tempo, Revista do Departamento de História da Universidade Federal Fluminense, 2005-present

H-AfResearch Advisory Board, 2003-present

Advisory Board, William Wilberforce Museum, Hull, 2005-07

Editorial Board, Oxford Encyclopaedia of Economic History (London: Oxford University Press, 2003)

Co-Organizer of the “Harriet Tubman Seminar,” Tubman Institute, York University

Conseil Scientifique de l’Institut Béninois d’Etudes et de Recherche sur la Diaspora Africaine (IBERDA), Université Natonale du Bénin

Text and Testimony Collective, University of the West Indies

College of Assessors, Canada Research Chair Program, 2002

Advisory Board, Canadian Journal of History, 1998

Series Editor, African Modernization and Development, Westview Press, 1986-98

Series Co-Editor, African Nations and Societies in History, Westview Press, 1992-98

Convener, UNESCO/SSHRCC Summer Institute, “Identifying Enslaved Africans: The ‘Nigerian’ Hinterland and the African Diaspora,” York University, 1997

Co-chair, African Studies Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, 1994

Guest Curator, Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool, 1992-94

Editorial Board, African Studies Review, 1988-1991

Editorial Board, Journal of African History, 1986 90

Editorial Board, Canadian Journal of African Studies, 1983 90

Board of Directors, Innovation York, 1986-90

Board of Directors, Ontario Molecular Diagnostics, Inc., 1987-90

Board of Directors, World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre, 1987-89

Co-editor, Journal of Asian and African Studies, 1987

Executive Committee, Canadian Association of Africa Studies, 1983 85

Editorial Board, African Economic History, 1976 1982

Community Contributions

Implementation of the Itineraries of African Canadian Memory with UNESCO Slave Route Project, 2010-2012 Summer Programme for Students (age 14-18), Tubman Institute, summers

Research Interests

History , African Studies, Culture and Cultural Studies, Race and Racism, Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Slavery; African Economic, History

Current Research Projects

SHADD: Testimonies of Enslaved Africans from the Era of Slavery

    Summary:

    The SHADD Biography Project focuses on the enforced migration of “Atlantic Africans,” that is enslaved Africans in the Atlantic world during the era of the slave trade, through an examination of biographical accounts of individuals born in Africa who were enslaved in the 16-19th century. The focus is on testimony, the voices of individual Africans. The Project is named for Mary Ann Shadd, abolitionist, Canadian, first woman newspaper editor (Voice of the Fugitive) in North America, in recognition of her political and intellectual commitment to document the Underground Railroad and resistance to slavery in North America. SHADD also identifies the website Studies in the History of the African Diaspora---Documents (www.harriettubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD), which houses facsimile and transcribed versions of testimonies. The SHADD Biography Project seeks to use an online digital repository of autobiographical testimonies and biographical data of Atlantic Africans to analyze patterns in the slave trade from West Africa, specifically in terms of where individuals came from, why they were enslaved, and what happened to them. The Project focuses on people born in Africa and hence in most cases had been born free rather than on those who were born into slavery in the Americas. Our contribution will add specifically concentrate on those who experienced the “Middle Passage,” i.e., the Atlantic crossing, which is often seen as a defining moment in the slavery experience. The genre “slave narrative” is thereby expanded through a study of accounts of slaves born in Africa. The SHADD Project focuses on biographical testimony as the fundamental unit of analysis, whether text arises from first person memory or via amanuensis, and whenever possible is supplemented with biographical details culled from legal, ecclesiastical, and other types of records. The Project will integrate testimonies and other data from several projects. This includes the research of the co-applicants and collaborators, who want to integrate databases in a fashion that will be innovative and creative. Lovejoy brings a range of testimonies focusing on the Central Sudan but including Yoruba, Nupe and other West African cases; Lovejoy is currently working with co-applicant, Kolapo, and collaborators, Kelley and Akurang-Parry, in the generation of materials on West Africa, along with Schwarz. In addition, Lovejoy, Schwarz and Banting Fellow Bezerra are working on biographical information about individuals taken off slave ships by the British navy and designated "Liberated Africans," who can be followed in the documentary record. In collaboration with Co-applicant, Le Glaunec, and Collaborator, Landers, these West African and “Liberated African” data will be combined with data from the French Caribbean, including information from fugitive slave advertisements, and in the case of Spanish and Portuguese colonies, from baptismal and other documentation maintained by the Church. Our intention is to identify individuals in the several collections of documents that amount to massive amounts of material. Individual testimonies are assembled on Google Drive, from where documents are transcribed into files on individuals and then verified. Specific bodies of data will be the focus of PhD and MA research projects. The Project contributes to an understanding of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its impact on West Africa as gleaned from biographical accounts. Scholars in several disciplines other than history, including literature studies and sociology will benefit from the project, which also will interest individuals undertaking genealogical research.The SHADD website allows students, the scholarly community, and the general access to the extensive data in an interactive form.

    Description:

    SHADD Biography Project – Description Objectives – The SHADD Biography Project focuses on the autobiographical testimonies of Africans from the era of the slave trade. The challenge of the project is to demonstrate that the history of Africans in the era of the slave trade can be recovered, and that this history is essential in our understanding of the modern world and its multicultural diversity. Because of the stigma of slavery, the historical importance and influence of the African diaspora has been systematically and institutionally silenced and forgotten. The aim of the SHADD Biography Project is to break this chain of silence by assembling, making accessible, and analyzing biographical and autobiographical accounts of Africans from the era of the slave trade. Although the historical literature and the extent of scholarly attention have both assumed that accounts of Africans do not exist or are relatively few and insignificant in number, the SHADD project has already identified detailed accounts of several thousand individuals from the late 18th century through the 19th century. Moreover, the analysis of the records of the abolition suppression campaign of the first half of the 19th century allows a further study of approximately 100,000 individuals, many of whose biographies can be reconstructed. Our objective is to combine the materials assembled by members of the team into a common dataset based on individuals and their experiences and identities rather than abstract numbers that dominates the discussion at the present time. This wealth of material allows the possibility of examining the history of the period from the end of the sixteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century in considerable detail as revealed in life histories. The African migration of this period constituted more than 90 percent of all trans-Atlantic migration and hence was fundamental to the development of the Americas and the Atlantic world during this period. The issues that are raised relate to the silencing of this story. Why is it that the African origins of the modern world are treated the way they have been, with neglect, denial, and non-scientific prejudice, when simple logic expects a strong and powerful influence on the development of the modern world? An alternate perspective on the development of the modern world has been argued by Lovejoy and others, although without much noticeable effect on the scholarly literature. It is the challenge of this project to confront this neglect by assembling an overwhelming database of materials on individual life histories of as many as 200,000 people who were born in Africa, enslaved, and taken into slavery, often sent across the Atlantic or at least with that destination in mind. The project is designed to advance scholarly knowledge of trans-Atlantic migration and corresponding influences of that migration on western Africa and the Americas, and implicitly Europe. The contribution to knowledge potentially could affect the perspective on history in relation to the development of the Americas and the rise of western European global domination. The SHADD Biography Project, based at the Harriet Tubman Institute at York University in Toronto and collaborating with scholars at Vanderbilt University, the University of Worcester, Université de Sherbrooke, the University of Guelph, and Shippensburg University, seeks to establish an online digital repository of autobiographical testimonies and biographical data of Atlantic Africans during the era of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The SHADD Biography Project concentrates on the life stories of individuals who were born in Africa but were destined for the Atlantic world via slavery. These are the individuals whom we are identifying as “Atlantic Africans.” The Project is named for Mary Ann Shadd, abolitionist, Canadian, editor of Voice of the Fugitive and the first woman newspaper editor in North America, in recognition of her political and intellectual commitment to document the period of the Underground Railroad, resistance to slavery in North America, and the flight of African Americans into exile in Canada. SHADD also identifies the website of the Biography Project, SHADD: Studies in the History of the African Diaspora—Documents (www.harriettubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD), which is intended to house facsimile and transcribed versions of all testimonies. The SHADD Biography Project makes available material on the individuals who helped to form the African Diaspora. Specifically the SHADD Project focuses on men, women and children who were born in Africa and in most cases were born free and therefore can be distinguished from the enslaved people born in the Americas who were born into slavery. The significance of this distinction has been recognized in differentiating those often referred to as creole because they were born in the Americas from those who came from Africa. The focus of this project is on those who clearly came from Africa. In the analysis of slavery, it is recognized that being born in Africa affected how the enslaved were socialized and disciplined to the work regime, but most analysis fails to break through the facelessness of slavery, in which individual personality was erased through the rupture from homelands, the physical and sexual abuse of the Middle Passage, the change of names, and the incorporation into the household of the prison. The danger in analysing slavery is the loss of perspective, succumbing to empathy for the terror of being a slave, when in secret, private moments, we should postulate, the memory of home persisted and even helped sustain broken bodies and tortured minds. The aim of the project is to sift the vast bodies of historical documentation to recover the stories of what happened to people. The SHADD Project includes autobiographical testimony as the fundamental unit of text, whether given in the first person or via amanuensis; personal testimony is supplemented with biographical details culled from legal, ecclesiastical, and other types of records. The SHADD Project will integrate testimonies and other data from several projects. This includes the research of the co-applicants and collaborators, who want to integrate databases in a fashion that will be innovative and creative. Paul Lovejoy brings a range of testimonies focusing on the Central Sudan but including Yoruba, Nupe and other West African cases, including the biographies of Muslims in Brazil and particularly the 1835 uprising in Bahia; Lovejoy is currently working with Sean Kelley in the generation of materials on West Africa, along with Suzanne Schwarz. In addition, Lovejoy, Schwarz and Bezerra are working on biographical information about individuals taken off slave ships by the British navy and designated “Liberated Africans,” who can be followed in the documentary record. Co-applicant Femi Kolapo and Kwabena Akurang-Parry contribute biographical accounts from central Nigeria and southern Ghana, respectively. In collaboration with Co-applicant, Jean-Pierre Le Glaunec, and Collaborator, Jane Landers, these West African and Liberated African data will be combined with data from the French Caribbean, including information from fugitive slave advertisements, and in the case of Spanish and Portuguese colonies, from baptismal and other documentation maintained by the Church. Our intention is to identify individuals in the several collections of documents that amount to massive amounts of material. Testimonies will be assembled and transcribed. The project has expertise in areas of West Africa and the Americas and has access to a wealth of documentation that crosses the Atlantic. Context (including literature review and theoretical approach) – The study of the African past in both West Africa and in the Americas can be enhanced enormously through the analysis of primary texts that derive from individual life histories. The participants in this project are in the forefront of collecting text-based materials, both from published primary sources and from numerous archives in more than 20 countries. In our collective opinion, the study of West African history and the history of the African diaspora can take a giant step forward through the proposed SHADD Biography Project. Each member of the team has made essential and substantial contributions to the collection of biographical data and to its analysis through their publications, as reflected in each c.v. and the list of references. The nature of our individual contributions has usually been episodic, following one or a few individuals and trying to reconstruct life histories in specific contexts. Indeed, we are not the only ones that have contextualized biography as individual case studies. Other excellent work can attributed to James Sweet, Walter Hawthorne, Martin Klein, Sandra Greene, Trevor Getz, and many others, whose work is also reflected in the attached references. In all our cases, we have depended on the documentation that we could find. The SHADD Biography Project proposes to combine all accessible source materials on individuals in one dataset so that we can take analysis to a new level that not only allows a continuation of the current pattern of focusing on individuals but also will allow comparisons and deeper analysis that can result from the ability to access larger bodies of data and with search capabilities that require unique analytical tools. Our proposal is to pool available datasets, which contain cases, testimonies, police reports, and other documents which have been collected, and in the context of graduate student research projects, ongoing projects of team members, and the solicitation of inputs from collaborating scholars who are not part of the application team, we hope to supplement our combined holdings. We want to create a resource that houses data so that we can better reconstruct the biographies of individuals whose histories are thought to have been lost, even denied and rejected, because of slavery. Our specific focus on those who were enslaved but were actually born free in Africa requires that we distinguish those from West Africa from those born in the Americas under slavery, a distinction that Lovejoy has suggested in revising the predominant theories of the “slave narrative” genre so ably described by Andrews, Gates, Carretta, and others and criticized by Lovejoy, among others. We contend that the literature on biography and slavery that has focused on “slave narratives,” that is texts written by individuals themselves and hence constitute autobiographies, has reached a false conclusion that the genre is almost entirely a North American creation. Our data include numerous autobiographical accounts that were written and sometimes published, not only in English but also in Hausa and Kanuri. The SHADD Project includes these autobiographical accounts, which Lovejoy has called “freedom narratives” to distinguish these accounts from the stories of those who were born in slavery in the Americas. In the case of many, if not most, of the accounts in our collective research trace people who were enslaved, but who had been born free, and who subsequently after a period of slavery were able to regain their freedom. In the case of the more than 100,000 so-called “Liberated Africans” who were taken off slave ships in Sierra Leone, this regained “freedom” involved a period of apprenticeship that produced considerable documentation. Hence the SHADD Project diverges from the usual emphasis of “slave narratives” that are autobiographical and extends the search to include biographical reconstructions, although with the important caveat that we base reconstructions on existing texts and testimonies. The SHADD Biogra phy Project complements existing database projects, such as TSTD2 (Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database) (www.slavevoyages.org); and Michigan State University’s Slave Biographies project (http://slavebiographies.org/project). The approach of the present proposal goes beyond these other database projects in two important respects; first the SHADD Project relies on text and where possible digitized copies of original documentation that can be searched; and second, the focus on West Africa as place of birth clearly establishes a demographic population whom we are calling Atlantic Africans. Methodology – The first stage of the SHADD Project requires common agreement among the team members on the necessity to transcribe all texts and text-based excerpts that pertain to individuals. Transcription allows full and easy search of data across sources. Individual testimonies are assembled on Google Drive, from where documents are transcribed into files on individuals. Once a transcription has been verified, both the transcription and the original text are uploaded onto the SHADD website, www.tubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD. Each individual text is prefaced by a short introduction summarizing the key points of the text, providing source information for the testimony, and establishing essential metadata to facilitate search capabilities. Moreover, other digitized materials with references to individuals can also be mined, with additional information added to folders. Each text is coded for approximately thirty basic variables, including name, gender, date of text, date of birth, place of birth, occupation, year of enslavement, and New World destination. These coding variables will make it easier for scholars and students to explore these valuable resources. Members of the Project are still collecting additional biographical information from archival repositories where new materials can be found. Our search for individuals who were born in West Africa has expanded to military records, fugitive slave advertisements, slave sales, legal records, and church documents that are proving enormously rewarding. Documents from which the SHADD Project will derive data sets also include those that were produced by crew members, ship doctors and merchants of slave trading ships during the period of the export slave trade across the Atlantic. These published and unpublished books, stories, reports, diaries and ship logs are mostly written in English, but with many in Dutch, French, Portuguese and Danish. They include major eye witness records and second hand renderings of auto/biographies and biographical information on enslaved people of all sexes that traders/travelers encountered during their journeys and trading to and from Africa. Explorer's accounts and reports, official and private, many published and others unpublished of several government expeditions into the interior of Africa constitute another category – many of the key ones cited in the references. These include encounters with slaves, slave holders, redeemed or manumitted ex-slaves and material from these, though not completely, have been collated by participating members of the SHADD project. These will be systematically pooled and searched for auto/biographical data. Generating data from more of these sources, including, from the non-English language portion is going to require assigning undergraduate research assistants to it. Missionary documents constitute a crucial category of data set source for the SHADD Project. The Methodist, CMS, AME and other missionaries who moved into Africa in the early 19th century, and some since the late 18th, including their numerous very important African helpers, produced a prodigious amount of reports, letters, diaries and journals in West Africa, perhaps more than half of which awaits transcription. As missionaries resided in their African posts for years and even decades, set after another set, their documents are rich sources for auto/biographies of enslaved and freed Africans. Their evangelistic missions in most instances were directly geared towards the marginal elements of the society, enslaved people being a significant portion of this number. Either as converts or prospective converts, visibly oppressed and victimized, the enslaved constituted a significant audience for missionaries, for whom the church and its agents became benefactors. Moreover, mission education was responsible for spreading literacy and the written word and thereby promoting autobiographies. On the whole, in fact, missionary records came to be written mostly by Africans; as Peel has noted, comprising a majority of CMS reports from Nigeria before 1880. The missionary documents produce rounded and more longitudinal documentation of individual slaves than other forms of documents previously discussed. Various members of the team have been transcribing missionary and other texts and now have large datasets with text. Kolapo, for example has worked with CMS missionary documents of the Upper Niger mission, led by Samuel Crowther. Missionary documents cover a period of over 40 years from c.1830-1870. Similarly, there were numerous expeditions into the interior of the upper Guinea coast from the 1790s onward that have left extensive biographical information. The Methodist, CMS, AME and other missionaries who moved into Africa in the late 18th and early 19th century describe their numerous and very important African helpers, many of whom wrote their own prodigious reports, letters, diaries and journals which are invaluable to this project. At present, perhaps half of which still awaits transcription /transliteration. These evangelical missions targeted the marginal elements of society, including enslaved individuals as a significant portion of this number. Whether prospective converts, converts, or visibly oppressed victims to which the church and its agents became benefactors, the enslaved were a significant audience of the missionaries. These documents include children named after missionary benefactors, reports of people redeemed from slavery, the records of the education of such children, and the employment of individuals at mission compounds. Part of the funding will be used to transfer data into a common format and dataset that is based on the material housed on the SHADD website and that will be mined from other databases into appropriate order conformable to a database which will be easily accessible to the scholarly community as well as this research team. Liberated African documentation is extensive in the National Archives in London, in Sierra Leone and in Brazil. Much of the materials from London and Sierra Leone is at the Tubman Institute and the University of Worcester, as well as in Sierra Leone. The Portuguese materials, particularly those from Arquivo Histórico do Itamaraty, Coleções especiais - Comissão Mista Brasil-Inglaterra Arquivo Nacional, Fundo da Junta do Comércio, Códices 184-188 - Cartas de Emancipação de Africanos Livres, Arquivo Publico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (APERJ). Fundo de Presidente de Província, Códice Diversos, Fundação Biblioteca Nacional (FBN), Seção Periódicos: Dário do Rio de Janeiro, Aurora Fluminense. Anúncios de fuga de Africanos Livres, are now available in digital form in Brazil and at the Tubman Institute. Project Time Line and Deliverables – The project time period is three years. The first year will be devoted to the integration of existing databases. This will require design of the common database, including the determination of fields of the database and the establishment of an umbrella cloud for the project. This stage of the project will require expert advice as well as the reflections of team members on their experiences to determine how best to restructure, supplement, and otherwise modify earlier work. Two working meetings will be required to enable close coordination of this stage of review and planning. The desire to link text and testimony with data means that previous databases will need to be tied to original documentation. This is where student assistance will be necessary and thereby will consciously involve both graduate and undergraduate students in training in transcription and creation of metadata to tie materials to the larger project. The first year will also identify gaps in the data that can be filled through further archival research, digitization of known materials that are not currently in the various databases of team members. In addition a dissemination and outreach programme will be launched, including expansion of existing websites, ongoing publications, participation in conferences and workshops. A working meeting of team members and involved graduate students will be held in Sierra Leone at the end of the first year of the grant. The second year will be devoted to revising the database, once specific upgrades are identified as necessary, and in order to supplement primary source material and to check original sources when necessary. A working meeting of team members and involved graduate students will be held at York. Specific gaps in data will be targeted through collaborative intervention. This will require research in archives that are identified as holding significant materials that have not yet been digitized or where materials have to be examined for possible inclusion. In several cases, graduate students will be involved in collecting targeted materials with extensive biographical information in the context of their thesis research. These include Dele Jemirade (York), who will be working on the police court records in Sierra Leone from the 1850s; Erika Delgado (Worcester), whose Ph.D. thesis will focus on school records in Sierra Leone from c. 1820-1850, Carlos da Silva (University of Hull, UK), whose Ph.D. thesis on the slave trade of the Bight of Benin. The third year will consolidate the project through the final integration of data from diverse sources, including new materials that have been located, digitized and transcribed. Additional digitizing of materials in conjunction with this project will be undertaken. A final team meeting will also allow the preparation of a report on the status of digitization and the possibilities of future additions. At this stage, a publication schedule, including a collective book by the team, will be confirmed. It is expected that by Year 3, there will be several Ph.D. theses and M.A. theses completed that are specifically tied to this project. Furthermore, the websites and online resources will be fully stabilized by Year 3. There will also be a continuation of the dissemination and outreach programme, including other publications, attendance at conferences and participations in workshops. Separate from this proposal, moreover, a conference will be organized in Year 3 to highlight the achievements of the SHADD Project. The core to the implementation of the SHADD Project is the four working meetings of the team, including graduate students. These meetings are intended to be face to face, first at York and then in Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro, and finally again at York. Of course, there will be other meetings via skype, and regular monitoring of work so that the collaboration is maximized. Why Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro? Because they are two of the most important locations of archives where primary source materials can be found and each location has its own peculiarities that require discussion in situ. The benefits in training for graduate students is obvious, since as appropriate students will be able to extend their stay in either Sierra Leone or Brazil to conduct research of benefit to their own Ph.D. theses and the aims of the Project. It is intended that an edited book will appear by the end of the third year of the project that will include various reports, preliminary papers, and documents that have emerged in the course of the Project. In addition, collective volume that focuses on major findings will be prepared for publication in the Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora, Africa World Press, of which Lovejoy is General Editor. It is anticipated that several articles and conference papers will be generated by team members and associated graduate students. The team has a strong track record in publishing research results through conference presentations and publication. It is also anticipated that two or three of the participants will be selected to write a book that is based on the Project. It is also proposed that a conference will be held after the completion of the Project, which will result in its own publications. The conference will address the issue of biography in the study of slavery. This forum will allow team members and their graduate students to present the results of the Project, as well as papers on particular aspects of the research. The graduate students associated with the Project will present papers. The importance of this endeavour is clear since it relates to the recovery of history and the documentation of the crime against humanity of slavery. Any review of the literature would include the members of this team as major contributors whose awareness of the theoretical implications of documenting life histories challenges the fields of history and literary criticism. We can show that the fashion of studying the “Black Atlantic” has ignored West Africa, but through a rigorous methodology of collection and analysis our team has amassed a wealth of new knowledge. Undergraduate and graduate students are fully integrated into this Project, which guarantees the quality of training and opportunity for mentoring in a meaningful way that will result in publications and the awarding of degrees. Moreover, the focus of the research on biography will undoubtedly be attractive to a wide audience, especially people of African descent in North America, and indeed elsewhere. The constitution of the research team guarantees the feasibility of the project, which is focused on four working meetings and the steady work of student research assistants throughout the life of the Project. The budget therefore focuses on two features: first the cost of mounting four working meetings; and second financial support for students who are involved in the Project. Additional costs in the budget relate to the operation of the Project. As demonstrated by the support from York University, the University of Worcester, and Vanderbilt University, existing resources will be used wherever possible. Clearly an atmosphere exists that is essential for the successful implementation of the Project. The preservation and presentation of data will be in accordance with the digital storage policies of the Tubman Institute. Our Project will contribute to the mobilization of new knowledge on the origins and development of the African diaspora and the impact on West Africa. We propose a publication and web-based programme of dissemination which is based on a solid track record of achievement. We have clearly identified phases for the Project, beginning with an initial working meeting at York University and including subsequent meetings in Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro before a final working meeting at York. We will develop web facilities that build on existing achievements. We have a plan for publication that can be guaranteed in the Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora of Africa World Press. Indeed it is the track record of the team members that should be considered foremost in determining whether or not this Project should be funded. Our collective publication record, ability to operate large grants, our experience in training and mentoring, and other achievements indicate that we will be able to implement a major project on the biographies of slaves from West Africa. Our methodological approach and theoretical framework are straight forward and easily comprehensible. The implications of the successful compilation of digitized repository for biographical data are considerable in terms of the potential for the discipline of history. Moreover, the Project is designed to allow for subsequent development, which can be expected.

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    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Apr   Year: 2014

    End Date:
      Month: Mar   Year: 2018

    Collaborator: Sean Kelley
    Collaborator Institution: University of Essex
    Collaborator Role: Co-applicant

    Funders:
    SSHRC
Perspectives on Historical and Contemporary Ransoming Practices

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    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Mar   Year: 2014

    End Date:
      Month: Aug   Year: 2015

    Collaborator: Jennifer Lofkrantz
    Collaborator Role: Co-applicant

    Funders:
    SSHRC
SHADD: Testimonies of Enslaved Africans from the Era of Slavery

    Summary:

    The SHADD Biography Project focuses on the enforced migration of “Atlantic Africans,” that is enslaved Africans in the Atlantic world during the era of the slave trade, through an examination of biographical accounts of individuals born in Africa who were enslaved in the 16-19th century. The focus is on testimony, the voices of individual Africans. The Project is named for Mary Ann Shadd, abolitionist, Canadian, first woman newspaper editor (Voice of the Fugitive) in North America, in recognition of her political and intellectual commitment to document the Underground Railroad and resistance to slavery in North America. SHADD also identifies the website Studies in the History of the African Diaspora---Documents (www.harriettubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD), which houses facsimile and transcribed versions of testimonies. The SHADD Biography Project seeks to use an online digital repository of autobiographical testimonies and biographical data of Atlantic Africans to analyze patterns in the slave trade from West Africa, specifically in terms of where individuals came from, why they were enslaved, and what happened to them. The Project focuses on people born in Africa and hence in most cases had been born free rather than on those who were born into slavery in the Americas. Our contribution will add specifically concentrate on those who experienced the “Middle Passage,” i.e., the Atlantic crossing, which is often seen as a defining moment in the slavery experience. The genre “slave narrative” is thereby expanded through a study of accounts of slaves born in Africa. The SHADD Project focuses on biographical testimony as the fundamental unit of analysis, whether text arises from first person memory or via amanuensis, and whenever possible is supplemented with biographical details culled from legal, ecclesiastical, and other types of records. The Project will integrate testimonies and other data from several projects. This includes the research of the co-applicants and collaborators, who want to integrate databases in a fashion that will be innovative and creative. Lovejoy brings a range of testimonies focusing on the Central Sudan but including Yoruba, Nupe and other West African cases; Lovejoy is currently working with co-applicant, Kolapo, and collaborators, Kelley and Akurang-Parry, in the generation of materials on West Africa, along with Schwarz. In addition, Lovejoy, Schwarz and Banting Fellow Bezerra are working on biographical information about individuals taken off slave ships by the British navy and designated "Liberated Africans," who can be followed in the documentary record. In collaboration with Co-applicant, Le Glaunec, and Collaborator, Landers, these West African and “Liberated African” data will be combined with data from the French Caribbean, including information from fugitive slave advertisements, and in the case of Spanish and Portuguese colonies, from baptismal and other documentation maintained by the Church. Our intention is to identify individuals in the several collections of documents that amount to massive amounts of material. Individual testimonies are assembled on Google Drive, from where documents are transcribed into files on individuals and then verified. Specific bodies of data will be the focus of PhD and MA research projects. The Project contributes to an understanding of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its impact on West Africa as gleaned from biographical accounts. Scholars in several disciplines other than history, including literature studies and sociology will benefit from the project, which also will interest individuals undertaking genealogical research.The SHADD website allows students, the scholarly community, and the general access to the extensive data in an interactive form.

    Description:

    SHADD Biography Project – Description Objectives – The SHADD Biography Project focuses on the autobiographical testimonies of Africans from the era of the slave trade. The challenge of the project is to demonstrate that the history of Africans in the era of the slave trade can be recovered, and that this history is essential in our understanding of the modern world and its multicultural diversity. Because of the stigma of slavery, the historical importance and influence of the African diaspora has been systematically and institutionally silenced and forgotten. The aim of the SHADD Biography Project is to break this chain of silence by assembling, making accessible, and analyzing biographical and autobiographical accounts of Africans from the era of the slave trade. Although the historical literature and the extent of scholarly attention have both assumed that accounts of Africans do not exist or are relatively few and insignificant in number, the SHADD project has already identified detailed accounts of several thousand individuals from the late 18th century through the 19th century. Moreover, the analysis of the records of the abolition suppression campaign of the first half of the 19th century allows a further study of approximately 100,000 individuals, many of whose biographies can be reconstructed. Our objective is to combine the materials assembled by members of the team into a common dataset based on individuals and their experiences and identities rather than abstract numbers that dominates the discussion at the present time. This wealth of material allows the possibility of examining the history of the period from the end of the sixteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century in considerable detail as revealed in life histories. The African migration of this period constituted more than 90 percent of all trans-Atlantic migration and hence was fundamental to the development of the Americas and the Atlantic world during this period. The issues that are raised relate to the silencing of this story. Why is it that the African origins of the modern world are treated the way they have been, with neglect, denial, and non-scientific prejudice, when simple logic expects a strong and powerful influence on the development of the modern world? An alternate perspective on the development of the modern world has been argued by Lovejoy and others, although without much noticeable effect on the scholarly literature. It is the challenge of this project to confront this neglect by assembling an overwhelming database of materials on individual life histories of as many as 200,000 people who were born in Africa, enslaved, and taken into slavery, often sent across the Atlantic or at least with that destination in mind. The project is designed to advance scholarly knowledge of trans-Atlantic migration and corresponding influences of that migration on western Africa and the Americas, and implicitly Europe. The contribution to knowledge potentially could affect the perspective on history in relation to the development of the Americas and the rise of western European global domination. The SHADD Biography Project, based at the Harriet Tubman Institute at York University in Toronto and collaborating with scholars at Vanderbilt University, the University of Worcester, Université de Sherbrooke, the University of Guelph, and Shippensburg University, seeks to establish an online digital repository of autobiographical testimonies and biographical data of Atlantic Africans during the era of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The SHADD Biography Project concentrates on the life stories of individuals who were born in Africa but were destined for the Atlantic world via slavery. These are the individuals whom we are identifying as “Atlantic Africans.” The Project is named for Mary Ann Shadd, abolitionist, Canadian, editor of Voice of the Fugitive and the first woman newspaper editor in North America, in recognition of her political and intellectual commitment to document the period of the Underground Railroad, resistance to slavery in North America, and the flight of African Americans into exile in Canada. SHADD also identifies the website of the Biography Project, SHADD: Studies in the History of the African Diaspora—Documents (www.harriettubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD), which is intended to house facsimile and transcribed versions of all testimonies. The SHADD Biography Project makes available material on the individuals who helped to form the African Diaspora. Specifically the SHADD Project focuses on men, women and children who were born in Africa and in most cases were born free and therefore can be distinguished from the enslaved people born in the Americas who were born into slavery. The significance of this distinction has been recognized in differentiating those often referred to as creole because they were born in the Americas from those who came from Africa. The focus of this project is on those who clearly came from Africa. In the analysis of slavery, it is recognized that being born in Africa affected how the enslaved were socialized and disciplined to the work regime, but most analysis fails to break through the facelessness of slavery, in which individual personality was erased through the rupture from homelands, the physical and sexual abuse of the Middle Passage, the change of names, and the incorporation into the household of the prison. The danger in analysing slavery is the loss of perspective, succumbing to empathy for the terror of being a slave, when in secret, private moments, we should postulate, the memory of home persisted and even helped sustain broken bodies and tortured minds. The aim of the project is to sift the vast bodies of historical documentation to recover the stories of what happened to people. The SHADD Project includes autobiographical testimony as the fundamental unit of text, whether given in the first person or via amanuensis; personal testimony is supplemented with biographical details culled from legal, ecclesiastical, and other types of records. The SHADD Project will integrate testimonies and other data from several projects. This includes the research of the co-applicants and collaborators, who want to integrate databases in a fashion that will be innovative and creative. Paul Lovejoy brings a range of testimonies focusing on the Central Sudan but including Yoruba, Nupe and other West African cases, including the biographies of Muslims in Brazil and particularly the 1835 uprising in Bahia; Lovejoy is currently working with Sean Kelley in the generation of materials on West Africa, along with Suzanne Schwarz. In addition, Lovejoy, Schwarz and Bezerra are working on biographical information about individuals taken off slave ships by the British navy and designated “Liberated Africans,” who can be followed in the documentary record. Co-applicant Femi Kolapo and Kwabena Akurang-Parry contribute biographical accounts from central Nigeria and southern Ghana, respectively. In collaboration with Co-applicant, Jean-Pierre Le Glaunec, and Collaborator, Jane Landers, these West African and Liberated African data will be combined with data from the French Caribbean, including information from fugitive slave advertisements, and in the case of Spanish and Portuguese colonies, from baptismal and other documentation maintained by the Church. Our intention is to identify individuals in the several collections of documents that amount to massive amounts of material. Testimonies will be assembled and transcribed. The project has expertise in areas of West Africa and the Americas and has access to a wealth of documentation that crosses the Atlantic. Context (including literature review and theoretical approach) – The study of the African past in both West Africa and in the Americas can be enhanced enormously through the analysis of primary texts that derive from individual life histories. The participants in this project are in the forefront of collecting text-based materials, both from published primary sources and from numerous archives in more than 20 countries. In our collective opinion, the study of West African history and the history of the African diaspora can take a giant step forward through the proposed SHADD Biography Project. Each member of the team has made essential and substantial contributions to the collection of biographical data and to its analysis through their publications, as reflected in each c.v. and the list of references. The nature of our individual contributions has usually been episodic, following one or a few individuals and trying to reconstruct life histories in specific contexts. Indeed, we are not the only ones that have contextualized biography as individual case studies. Other excellent work can attributed to James Sweet, Walter Hawthorne, Martin Klein, Sandra Greene, Trevor Getz, and many others, whose work is also reflected in the attached references. In all our cases, we have depended on the documentation that we could find. The SHADD Biography Project proposes to combine all accessible source materials on individuals in one dataset so that we can take analysis to a new level that not only allows a continuation of the current pattern of focusing on individuals but also will allow comparisons and deeper analysis that can result from the ability to access larger bodies of data and with search capabilities that require unique analytical tools. Our proposal is to pool available datasets, which contain cases, testimonies, police reports, and other documents which have been collected, and in the context of graduate student research projects, ongoing projects of team members, and the solicitation of inputs from collaborating scholars who are not part of the application team, we hope to supplement our combined holdings. We want to create a resource that houses data so that we can better reconstruct the biographies of individuals whose histories are thought to have been lost, even denied and rejected, because of slavery. Our specific focus on those who were enslaved but were actually born free in Africa requires that we distinguish those from West Africa from those born in the Americas under slavery, a distinction that Lovejoy has suggested in revising the predominant theories of the “slave narrative” genre so ably described by Andrews, Gates, Carretta, and others and criticized by Lovejoy, among others. We contend that the literature on biography and slavery that has focused on “slave narratives,” that is texts written by individuals themselves and hence constitute autobiographies, has reached a false conclusion that the genre is almost entirely a North American creation. Our data include numerous autobiographical accounts that were written and sometimes published, not only in English but also in Hausa and Kanuri. The SHADD Project includes these autobiographical accounts, which Lovejoy has called “freedom narratives” to distinguish these accounts from the stories of those who were born in slavery in the Americas. In the case of many, if not most, of the accounts in our collective research trace people who were enslaved, but who had been born free, and who subsequently after a period of slavery were able to regain their freedom. In the case of the more than 100,000 so-called “Liberated Africans” who were taken off slave ships in Sierra Leone, this regained “freedom” involved a period of apprenticeship that produced considerable documentation. Hence the SHADD Project diverges from the usual emphasis of “slave narratives” that are autobiographical and extends the search to include biographical reconstructions, although with the important caveat that we base reconstructions on existing texts and testimonies. The SHADD Biogra phy Project complements existing database projects, such as TSTD2 (Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database) (www.slavevoyages.org); and Michigan State University’s Slave Biographies project (http://slavebiographies.org/project). The approach of the present proposal goes beyond these other database projects in two important respects; first the SHADD Project relies on text and where possible digitized copies of original documentation that can be searched; and second, the focus on West Africa as place of birth clearly establishes a demographic population whom we are calling Atlantic Africans. Methodology – The first stage of the SHADD Project requires common agreement among the team members on the necessity to transcribe all texts and text-based excerpts that pertain to individuals. Transcription allows full and easy search of data across sources. Individual testimonies are assembled on Google Drive, from where documents are transcribed into files on individuals. Once a transcription has been verified, both the transcription and the original text are uploaded onto the SHADD website, www.tubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD. Each individual text is prefaced by a short introduction summarizing the key points of the text, providing source information for the testimony, and establishing essential metadata to facilitate search capabilities. Moreover, other digitized materials with references to individuals can also be mined, with additional information added to folders. Each text is coded for approximately thirty basic variables, including name, gender, date of text, date of birth, place of birth, occupation, year of enslavement, and New World destination. These coding variables will make it easier for scholars and students to explore these valuable resources. Members of the Project are still collecting additional biographical information from archival repositories where new materials can be found. Our search for individuals who were born in West Africa has expanded to military records, fugitive slave advertisements, slave sales, legal records, and church documents that are proving enormously rewarding. Documents from which the SHADD Project will derive data sets also include those that were produced by crew members, ship doctors and merchants of slave trading ships during the period of the export slave trade across the Atlantic. These published and unpublished books, stories, reports, diaries and ship logs are mostly written in English, but with many in Dutch, French, Portuguese and Danish. They include major eye witness records and second hand renderings of auto/biographies and biographical information on enslaved people of all sexes that traders/travelers encountered during their journeys and trading to and from Africa. Explorer's accounts and reports, official and private, many published and others unpublished of several government expeditions into the interior of Africa constitute another category – many of the key ones cited in the references. These include encounters with slaves, slave holders, redeemed or manumitted ex-slaves and material from these, though not completely, have been collated by participating members of the SHADD project. These will be systematically pooled and searched for auto/biographical data. Generating data from more of these sources, including, from the non-English language portion is going to require assigning undergraduate research assistants to it. Missionary documents constitute a crucial category of data set source for the SHADD Project. The Methodist, CMS, AME and other missionaries who moved into Africa in the early 19th century, and some since the late 18th, including their numerous very important African helpers, produced a prodigious amount of reports, letters, diaries and journals in West Africa, perhaps more than half of which awaits transcription. As missionaries resided in their African posts for years and even decades, set after another set, their documents are rich sources for auto/biographies of enslaved and freed Africans. Their evangelistic missions in most instances were directly geared towards the marginal elements of the society, enslaved people being a significant portion of this number. Either as converts or prospective converts, visibly oppressed and victimized, the enslaved constituted a significant audience for missionaries, for whom the church and its agents became benefactors. Moreover, mission education was responsible for spreading literacy and the written word and thereby promoting autobiographies. On the whole, in fact, missionary records came to be written mostly by Africans; as Peel has noted, comprising a majority of CMS reports from Nigeria before 1880. The missionary documents produce rounded and more longitudinal documentation of individual slaves than other forms of documents previously discussed. Various members of the team have been transcribing missionary and other texts and now have large datasets with text. Kolapo, for example has worked with CMS missionary documents of the Upper Niger mission, led by Samuel Crowther. Missionary documents cover a period of over 40 years from c.1830-1870. Similarly, there were numerous expeditions into the interior of the upper Guinea coast from the 1790s onward that have left extensive biographical information. The Methodist, CMS, AME and other missionaries who moved into Africa in the late 18th and early 19th century describe their numerous and very important African helpers, many of whom wrote their own prodigious reports, letters, diaries and journals which are invaluable to this project. At present, perhaps half of which still awaits transcription /transliteration. These evangelical missions targeted the marginal elements of society, including enslaved individuals as a significant portion of this number. Whether prospective converts, converts, or visibly oppressed victims to which the church and its agents became benefactors, the enslaved were a significant audience of the missionaries. These documents include children named after missionary benefactors, reports of people redeemed from slavery, the records of the education of such children, and the employment of individuals at mission compounds. Part of the funding will be used to transfer data into a common format and dataset that is based on the material housed on the SHADD website and that will be mined from other databases into appropriate order conformable to a database which will be easily accessible to the scholarly community as well as this research team. Liberated African documentation is extensive in the National Archives in London, in Sierra Leone and in Brazil. Much of the materials from London and Sierra Leone is at the Tubman Institute and the University of Worcester, as well as in Sierra Leone. The Portuguese materials, particularly those from Arquivo Histórico do Itamaraty, Coleções especiais - Comissão Mista Brasil-Inglaterra Arquivo Nacional, Fundo da Junta do Comércio, Códices 184-188 - Cartas de Emancipação de Africanos Livres, Arquivo Publico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (APERJ). Fundo de Presidente de Província, Códice Diversos, Fundação Biblioteca Nacional (FBN), Seção Periódicos: Dário do Rio de Janeiro, Aurora Fluminense. Anúncios de fuga de Africanos Livres, are now available in digital form in Brazil and at the Tubman Institute. Project Time Line and Deliverables – The project time period is three years. The first year will be devoted to the integration of existing databases. This will require design of the common database, including the determination of fields of the database and the establishment of an umbrella cloud for the project. This stage of the project will require expert advice as well as the reflections of team members on their experiences to determine how best to restructure, supplement, and otherwise modify earlier work. Two working meetings will be required to enable close coordination of this stage of review and planning. The desire to link text and testimony with data means that previous databases will need to be tied to original documentation. This is where student assistance will be necessary and thereby will consciously involve both graduate and undergraduate students in training in transcription and creation of metadata to tie materials to the larger project. The first year will also identify gaps in the data that can be filled through further archival research, digitization of known materials that are not currently in the various databases of team members. In addition a dissemination and outreach programme will be launched, including expansion of existing websites, ongoing publications, participation in conferences and workshops. A working meeting of team members and involved graduate students will be held in Sierra Leone at the end of the first year of the grant. The second year will be devoted to revising the database, once specific upgrades are identified as necessary, and in order to supplement primary source material and to check original sources when necessary. A working meeting of team members and involved graduate students will be held at York. Specific gaps in data will be targeted through collaborative intervention. This will require research in archives that are identified as holding significant materials that have not yet been digitized or where materials have to be examined for possible inclusion. In several cases, graduate students will be involved in collecting targeted materials with extensive biographical information in the context of their thesis research. These include Dele Jemirade (York), who will be working on the police court records in Sierra Leone from the 1850s; Erika Delgado (Worcester), whose Ph.D. thesis will focus on school records in Sierra Leone from c. 1820-1850, Carlos da Silva (University of Hull, UK), whose Ph.D. thesis on the slave trade of the Bight of Benin. The third year will consolidate the project through the final integration of data from diverse sources, including new materials that have been located, digitized and transcribed. Additional digitizing of materials in conjunction with this project will be undertaken. A final team meeting will also allow the preparation of a report on the status of digitization and the possibilities of future additions. At this stage, a publication schedule, including a collective book by the team, will be confirmed. It is expected that by Year 3, there will be several Ph.D. theses and M.A. theses completed that are specifically tied to this project. Furthermore, the websites and online resources will be fully stabilized by Year 3. There will also be a continuation of the dissemination and outreach programme, including other publications, attendance at conferences and participations in workshops. Separate from this proposal, moreover, a conference will be organized in Year 3 to highlight the achievements of the SHADD Project. The core to the implementation of the SHADD Project is the four working meetings of the team, including graduate students. These meetings are intended to be face to face, first at York and then in Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro, and finally again at York. Of course, there will be other meetings via skype, and regular monitoring of work so that the collaboration is maximized. Why Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro? Because they are two of the most important locations of archives where primary source materials can be found and each location has its own peculiarities that require discussion in situ. The benefits in training for graduate students is obvious, since as appropriate students will be able to extend their stay in either Sierra Leone or Brazil to conduct research of benefit to their own Ph.D. theses and the aims of the Project. It is intended that an edited book will appear by the end of the third year of the project that will include various reports, preliminary papers, and documents that have emerged in the course of the Project. In addition, collective volume that focuses on major findings will be prepared for publication in the Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora, Africa World Press, of which Lovejoy is General Editor. It is anticipated that several articles and conference papers will be generated by team members and associated graduate students. The team has a strong track record in publishing research results through conference presentations and publication. It is also anticipated that two or three of the participants will be selected to write a book that is based on the Project. It is also proposed that a conference will be held after the completion of the Project, which will result in its own publications. The conference will address the issue of biography in the study of slavery. This forum will allow team members and their graduate students to present the results of the Project, as well as papers on particular aspects of the research. The graduate students associated with the Project will present papers. The importance of this endeavour is clear since it relates to the recovery of history and the documentation of the crime against humanity of slavery. Any review of the literature would include the members of this team as major contributors whose awareness of the theoretical implications of documenting life histories challenges the fields of history and literary criticism. We can show that the fashion of studying the “Black Atlantic” has ignored West Africa, but through a rigorous methodology of collection and analysis our team has amassed a wealth of new knowledge. Undergraduate and graduate students are fully integrated into this Project, which guarantees the quality of training and opportunity for mentoring in a meaningful way that will result in publications and the awarding of degrees. Moreover, the focus of the research on biography will undoubtedly be attractive to a wide audience, especially people of African descent in North America, and indeed elsewhere. The constitution of the research team guarantees the feasibility of the project, which is focused on four working meetings and the steady work of student research assistants throughout the life of the Project. The budget therefore focuses on two features: first the cost of mounting four working meetings; and second financial support for students who are involved in the Project. Additional costs in the budget relate to the operation of the Project. As demonstrated by the support from York University, the University of Worcester, and Vanderbilt University, existing resources will be used wherever possible. Clearly an atmosphere exists that is essential for the successful implementation of the Project. The preservation and presentation of data will be in accordance with the digital storage policies of the Tubman Institute. Our Project will contribute to the mobilization of new knowledge on the origins and development of the African diaspora and the impact on West Africa. We propose a publication and web-based programme of dissemination which is based on a solid track record of achievement. We have clearly identified phases for the Project, beginning with an initial working meeting at York University and including subsequent meetings in Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro before a final working meeting at York. We will develop web facilities that build on existing achievements. We have a plan for publication that can be guaranteed in the Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora of Africa World Press. Indeed it is the track record of the team members that should be considered foremost in determining whether or not this Project should be funded. Our collective publication record, ability to operate large grants, our experience in training and mentoring, and other achievements indicate that we will be able to implement a major project on the biographies of slaves from West Africa. Our methodological approach and theoretical framework are straight forward and easily comprehensible. The implications of the successful compilation of digitized repository for biographical data are considerable in terms of the potential for the discipline of history. Moreover, the Project is designed to allow for subsequent development, which can be expected.

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    Role: Principal Investigator

    Funders:
    SSHRC
Books

Publication
Year

2014 Slavery, Abolition and the Transition to Colonialism in Sierra Leone. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press (co-edited with Suzanne Schwarz)

2014

2013 The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Slavery: New Directions in Teaching and Learning. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press (co-edited with Benjamin Bowser)

2013

2011 H.H. Johnston’s “The History of a Slave” (1889). Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener (edited)

2011

2011 Transformations in Slavery. A History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 3rd revised edition

2011

2011 Crossing Memories: Slavery and African Diaspora. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (co-edited with Ana Lucia Araujo and Mariana Pinho Cândido)

2011

2010 Repercussions of the Atlantic Slave Trade: The Interior of the Bight of Biafra and the African Diaspora. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (co-edited with Carolyn Brown)

2010

2009 Slavery, Islam and Diaspora. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (co-edited with Behnaz Asl Mirzai and Ismael Musah Montana)

2009

2008 Africa and Trans-Atlantic Memories: Literary and Aesthetic Manifestations of Diaspora and History. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (co-edited with Naana Opoku-Agyemang, and David Trotman)

2008

2008 Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology, London, Routledge, 2nd ed. (co-edited with Jordan Goodman and Andrew Sherratt)

2008

2008 Haití – Revolución y emancipación. San José, Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica (co-edited with Rina Cáceres)

2008

2007 The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America (Princeton: Markus Wiener Publisher, 2nd rev ed.) (co-edited and introduction, with Robin Law)

2007

2005 Ecology and Ethnography of Muslim Trade in West Africa. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora

2005

2005 Hugh Clapperton into the Interior of Africa: Records of the Second Expedition 1825-1827. Leiden, Brill (co-edited with Jamie Bruce Lockhart)

2005

2005 Slavery, Commerce and Production in West Africa: Slave Society in the Sokoto Caliphate. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora

2005

2005 Under the North Star: Black Communities in Upper Canada before Confederation (1867) , by Donald Simpson. New Brunswick NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (edited)

2005

2004 Enslaving Connections: Changing Cultures of Africa and Brazil during the Era of Slavery. Amherst NY: Humanity Books (co-edited with José C. Curto)

2004

2004 Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam. Princeton, Markus Wiener Publisher (edited)

2004

2003 Busah's Mistress, Or Catherine the Fugitive. A Romance Set in the Days of Slavery, by Cyrus Francis Perkins (Brantford, Ontario, 1855). Kingston, Jamaica, Ian Randle, Publisher (co-edited and introduction, with Verene Shepherd and David Trotman)

2003

2003 Pawnship, Slavery and Colonialism in Africa. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (co-edited with Toyin Falola)

2003

2003 The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History, editor in chief, Joel Mokyr. New York, Oxford University Press, 5 vols. (co-editor)

2003

2003 The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History , editor in chief, Joel Mokyr. New York, Oxford University Press, 5 vols. (co-editor)

2003

2003 Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of Ethnicity in the African Diaspora. London, Continuum, Black Atlantic Series (co-edited with David Trotman)

2003

2002 A escravidão na África. Uma história de suas transformações. Rio de Janeiro, Civilização Brasileira (trad: Regina A.R.F. Bhering and Luiz Guilherme B. Chaves)

2002

2001 The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America. Princeton, Markus Wiener Publisher (co-edited and introduction, with Robin Law)

2001

2000 Identity in the Shadow of Slavery. Black Atlantic Series, London, Cassell Academic, Black Atlantic Series (editor)

2000

2000 Slaves and Slave Holders on the Gold Coast: Towards an Understanding of Social Bondage in West Africa , by Peter Haenger. Basel, P. Schglettwein Publishing (co-edited with J.J. Shafer)

2000

2000 Transformations in Slavery. History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2nd and revised edition

2000

1997 Displacement and the Politics of Violence in Nigeria. Leiden: Brill, International Studies in Sociology and Anthropology (originally published as a special issue on population displacement in contemporary Nigeria, Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 33, no. 1/2 (co-edited with Patricia Ama Tokunbo Williams)

1997

1997 Pilgrims, Interpreters and Agents: French Reconnaissance Reports on the Sokoto Caliphate and Borno, 1891-1895. Madison: African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin (co-edited with A.S. Kanya-Forstner)

1997

1995 Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology. London, Routledge (co-edited with Jordan Goodman and Andrew Sherratt)

1995

1994 Pawnship in Africa: Debt Bondage in Historical Perspective. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press (co-edited with Toyin Falola)

1994

1994 Slavery and its Abolition in French West Africa: The Official Reports of G. Poulet, E. Roume, and G. Deherme. Madison, African Studies program (co-edited with A.S. Kanya-Forstner)

1994

1994 The Sokoto Caliphate and the European Powers, 1890-1906. Special issue of Paideuma (co-edited with A.S. Kanya-Forstner)

1994

1994 Unfree Labor in the Development of the Atlantic World. London: Frank Cass; also special issue of Slavery and Abolition (co-edited with Nicholas Rogers)

1994

1993 Slow Death for Slavery. The Course of Abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897-1936. Cambridge University Press, African Studies Series (with J.S. Hogendorn)

1993

1986 Africans in Bondage. Studies in Slavery and the Slave Trade. Madison, Wisconsin, African Studies Program (editor)

1986

1986 Salt of the Desert Sun. A History of Salt Production and Trade in the Central Sudan. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, African Studies Series

1986

1985 The Workers of African Trade. Beverly Hills, Sage Publications (co edited with Catherine Coquery Vidrovitch)

1985

1983 Transformations in Slavery. History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, African Studies Series

1983

1981 The Ideology of Slavery in Africa. Beverly Hills, Sage Publications (editor)

1981

1980 Caravans of Kola. The Hausa Kola Trade, 1700-1900. Zaria, Ahmadu Bello University Press; and Ibadan, University Press, Ltd.

1980

Book Chapters

Publication
Year

2015 "Mode de production des sociétés esclavagistes," Repenser l'anthropologie aujourd'hui avec Emmanuel Terray: Colloque international (Paris: CNRS), 13 pp.

2015

2013 “Transformation of the Ékpè Masquerade in the African Diaspora,” in Christopher Innes, Annabel Rutherford and Brigitte Bogar, eds., Carnival: Theory and Practice (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press), 127-52

2013

2013 “Pawnship and Seizure for Debt in the Process of Enslavement in West Africa,” in in Gwyn Campbell and Alessandro Stanziani, eds., Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds (London: Pickering and Chatto), 63-76

2013

2013 “The Land Question in Early Colonial Northern Nigeria,” in Ojong Echum Tangban and Chukwuma C.C. Osakwe, eds., Perspectives in African Historical Studies: Essays in Honour of Prof. Chinedu Nwafor Ubah (Kaduna: Nigerian Defence Academy), 667-88

2013

2011 “The Autobiography of Oluadah Equiano, the African, and the Life of Gustavus Vassa, Reconsidered,” in Ana Lucia Araujo, Mariana Pinho Cândido and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., Crossing Memories in the African Diaspora (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press), 15-34

2011

2010 "Commerce and Credit in Katsina in the Nineteenth Century," in Emily Brownell and Toyin Falola, eds., Africa, Empire and Globalization: Essays In Honor of A.G. Hopkins (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press) (with Yacine Daddi Addoun)

2010

2010 “The Slave Ports of the Bight of Biafra in the Eighteenth Century,” in Carolyn Brown and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., Repercussions of the Atlantic Slave Trade: The Interior of the Bight of Biafra and the African Diaspora (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press) (with David Richardson)

2010

2009 “Gustavus Vassa, Africano quien trató de humanizar la esclavización en la Costa de Mosquitos, 1775-1780,” in Jaime Arocha, ed., Nina S. de Friedemann, cronista de disidencias y resistencias (Bogota, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, 2009), 205-31

2009

2009 “Scarification and the Loss of History in the African Diaspora,” in Andrew Apter and Lauren Derry, eds., Activating the Past Historical Memory in the Black Atlantic (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholarly Publishing)

2009

2009 “The African Background of Venture Smith,” in James B. Stewart, ed., Venture Smith and the Business of Slavery and Freedom (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press)

2009

2009 “The Autobiography of Oluadah Equiano, the African, and the Life of Gustavus Vassa, Reconsidered,” in Ana Lucia Araujo, Mariana Pinho Cândido and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., Crossing Memories in the African Diaspora (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press)

2009

2009 “The Memorialisation of Slavery and the Slave Trade in Freedom Narratives,” in Swithin R. Wilmot, ed., Freedom: Retrospective and Perspective (Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers), 16-31

2009

2009 “The Slave Trade as Enforced Migration in the Central Sudan,” in Claudia Haake and Richard Bessel, eds., Removing Peoples: Forced Removal in the Modern World (London: German Historical Institute, 2008), Chapter 7

2009

2008 “Las ambiciones imperiales británicas en la Costa de la Mosquitia y la abolición de la esclavitud indígena, 1773-1781,” in Rina Cáceres and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds. Haití – Revolución y emancipación (San José: Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica)

2008

2008 “Los niños de Atlántico,” in Rina Cáceres Gómez, ed., Del olvido a la memoria: África en tiempos de la esclavitud (San José: UNESCO, 2008), 47-54

2008

2008 “Narratives of Trans-Atlantic Slavery: The Lives of Two Muslims, Muhammad Kab? Saghanaghu and Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua,” in Naana Opoku-Agyemang, Paul E. Lovejoy, and David Trotman, eds), Africa and Trans-Atlantic Memories: Literary and Aesthetic Manifestations of Diaspora and History (Trenton NJ: Africa World Press).

2008

2008 “Resistencia y rebellion en Río Tinto,” in Rina Cáceres Gómez, ed., Del olvido a la memoria: Esclavitud, resitencia y cultura (San José: UNESCO, 2008), 17-22

2008

2008 “Transatlantic Transformations: The Origins and Identities of Africans in the Americas,” in Boubacar Barry, Livio Sansone, and Elisée Soumonni, eds., Africa, Brazil, and the Construction of Trans-Atlantic Black Identities (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press)

2008

2007 “African Agency and the Liverpool Slave Trade,” in Suzannah Schwartz and David Richardson, eds., Liverpool and Transatlantic Slavery (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, with David Richardson)

2007

2007 “Alhaji Ahmad el-Fellati ibn Dauda ibn Muhammad Manga: Personal Malam to Emir Muhammad Bello of Kano,” in Femi J. Kolapo and Kwabena Akurang-Parry, eds., African Agency and European Colonialism: Latitudes of Negotiations and Containment:Essays in Honour of Sydney Kanya-Forstner

2007

2007 “Civilian Casualties in the Context of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” in John Laband, ed., Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Africa: From Slavery Days to Rwandan Genocide (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press), 17-50

2007

2007 “Internal Markets or an Atlantic-Sahara Divide? How Women Fit into the Slave Trade of West Africa,” in Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller (eds.), Women and Slavery (Athens: Ohio University Press)

2007

2007 “O Fator Iorubá no Tráfico Transatlântico de Escravos,” in Mariza de Carvalho Soares (organizadora), Rotas Atlânticas da Diáspora Africana: os 'Pretos Minas' no Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII-XX (Rio de Janeiro)

2007

2007 “Slavery, the Slave Trade and African Society,” in Douglas Hamilton and Robert J. Blyth, eds., Representing Slavery: Art, Artefacts and Archives in the Collections of the National Maritime Museum (London: Ashgate, 2007), 28-39

2007

2007 “The Arabic Manuscript of Muhammad Kaba Saghanughu of Jamaica, c. 1820,” in Annie Paul, ed., Creole Concerns: Essays in Honour of Kamau Brathwaite (Kingston: University of the West Indies Press) (with Yacine Daddi Addoun)

2007

2006 “Biographies of Enslaved Muslims from the Central Sudan in the Nineteenth Century,” in H. Bobboyi and A.M. Yakubu, eds., The Sokoto Caliphate: History and Legacies, 1804-2004 (Kaduna: Arewa House, 2006), vol. 1, 187-216

2006

2006 “Identity and the Mirage of Ethnicity: Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua’s Journey in the Americas,” in Jay B. Haviser and Kevin C. MacDonald, eds., African Re-Genesis: Confronting Social Issues in the Diaspora (London: Cavendish Publishing), 90-105

2006

2006 “The Context of Enslavement in West Africa: Ahmad B?b? and the Ethics of Slavery,” in Jane Landers (ed.), Slaves, Subjects, and Subversives: Blacks in Colonial Latin America (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press), 9-38

2006

2005 “The Yoruba Factor in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” in Matt Childs and Toyin Falola (eds.), The Yoruba Diaspora in the Atlantic World (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), 40-55

2005

2005 “Trans-Atlantic Transformations: The Origins and Identities of Africans in the Americas,” in Willem Wubbo Klooster and Alfred Padula (eds.), The Atlantic World: Essays on Slavery, Migration, and Imagination (New York: Prentice-Hall), 126-46

2005

2004 “Community of Believers: Trinidad Muslims and the Return to Africa, c. 1810-1850,” in Paul E. Lovejoy (ed.), Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam (Princeton: Markus Wiener, Publisher), 221-34 (with David Trotman)

2004

2004 “Muhammad K?b? Saghanughu and the Muslim Community of Jamaica,” in Paul E. Lovejoy (ed.), Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam (Princeton: Markus Wiener, Publisher), 201-20 (with Yacine Daddi Addoun)

2004

2004 “Muslim Freedmen in the Atlantic World: Images of Manumission and Self-Redemption,” in Paul E. Lovejoy (ed.), Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam (Princeton: Markus Wiener, Publisher), 235-64

2004

2004 “Slavery, the Bil?d al-Sudan and the Frontiers of the African Diaspora,” in Paul E. Lovejoy (ed.), Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam (Princeton: Markus Wiener, Publisher), 1-30

2004

2004 “Slaves to Palm Oil: Afro-European Commercial Relations in the Bight of Biafra, 1741-1841,” in David Killingray, Margarette Lincoln, and Nigel Rigby (eds.), Maritime Empires (London: Boydell & Brewer) (with David Richardson)

2004

2003 “A Escravidão no Califado de Socoto," in Manolo Florentino and Cicilda Machado (eds.), Ensaios sobre a escravidão (Belo Horizonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais), 37-64

2003

2003 “Anglo-Efik Relations and Protection against Illegal Enslavement at Old Calabar 1740-1807,” in Sylviane Diouf (ed.), Fighting the Slave Trade: West African Strategies (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), 101-20 (with David Richardson)

2003

2003 “Ethnic Designations of the Slave Trade and the Reconstruction of the History of Trans-Atlantic Slavery,” in Paul E. Lovejoy and David Trotman (eds.) Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of the Ethnicity in the African Diaspora (London: Continuum)

2003

2003 “Ethnicity and the African Diaspora,” in Paul E. Lovejoy and David Trotman (eds.) Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of the Ethnicity in the African Diaspora (London: Continuum) (with David Trotman)

2003

2003 “International Trade in West Africa in the Nineteenth Century: Salaga and Kano as ‘Ports of Trade’,” in Toyin Falola (ed.), Ghana in Africa and the World. Essays in Honor of Adu Boahen (Trenton NJ: Africa World Press), 477-512

2003

2003 “The Black Atlantic in the Construction of the ‘Western’ World: Alternative Approaches to the ‘Europeanization’ of the Americas,” in Dirk Hoerder, Christiane Harzig and Adrian Shubert (eds.), Diversity in History: Transcultural Interactions from the Early Modern Mediterranean World to the Twentieth-Century Postcolonial World (New York: Berghahn Books), 109-33

2003

2003 “Trans-Atlantic Transformations: The Origins and Identities of Africans in the Americas,” Palaver: Africa e alter terre, 1, 85-114

2003

2002 “Enslaved Africans and their Expectations of Slave Life in the Americas: Towards a Reconsideration of Models of ‘Creolisaton’,” in Verene A. Shepherd and Glen L. Richards (eds.), Questioning Creole: Creolisaton Discourses in Caribbean Culture (Kingston: Ian Randal, Publishers), 67-91

2002

2002 “Methodology through the Ethnic Lens: The Study of Atlantic Africa,” in Toyin Falola and Christian Jennings (eds.), African Historical Research: Sources and Methods (Rochester: University of Rochester Press)

2002

2002 “Nueces de Cola en Cartagena: Intercambios Transatlánticos en el siglo XVII,” in Claudia Mosquera, Mauricio Pardo and Odile Hoffmann (eds.) Afrodescendientes en las América: Trayectorias socials e identitarias (Bogota: Universidad Nacional Colombia), 195-212 (with Renée Soulodre-La France)

2002

2001 “Experiencias de vida y exectativas: Nociones Africanas sobre la esclavitud y la realidad en América,” in Rina Cáceres (ed.), Rutas de la Esclavitud en África y América Latina (San José: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica), 379-404 (with David Trotman)

2001

2001 “Letters of the Old Calabar Slave Trade, 1760-89” in Vincent Carretta and Philip Gould (eds.), Genius in Bondage: Literatures of the Early Black Atlantic (Louisville, University of Kentucky Press) (with David Richardson), 89-115

2001

2000 “Identifying Enslaved Africans in the African Diaspora,” in Lovejoy (ed.), Identity in the Shadow of Slavery (London: Cassell Academic)

2000

2000 “The Clapperton-Bello Exchange: the Sokoto Jihad and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1804-1837,” in Christopher Wise (ed.), The Desert Shore: Literatures of the African Sahel (Boulder: Lynne Rienner), 201-28

2000

1999 "Slave-Trading Ports: Toward an Atlantic-Wide Perspective,” in Robin Law and Silke Strickrodt (eds.), Ports of the Slave Trade (Bights of Benin and Biafra) (Stirling: Centre of Commonwealth Studies, University of Stirling), 12-34 (with David Eltis and David Richardson)

1999

1997 "Biography as Source Material: Towards a Biographical Archive of Enslaved Africans," in Robin Law (ed.), Source Material for Studying the Slave Trade and the African Diaspora (Centre of Commonwealth Studies, University of Stirling), 119-140.

1997

1997 "Cross-Border Migration and Political Instability," in Antonio R. Magalhaes(ed.), Sustainable Development: Implications for World Peace (Austin, University of Texas Press), 41-46; Discussion, 47-57.

1997

1997 "The Changing Dimensions of African History: Reappropriating the Diaspora," (with Robin Law), in Simon McGrath, Charles Jedrej, Kenneth King, and Jack Thompson (eds.), Rethinking African History (Edinburgh, Centre of African Studies), 181-200.

1997

1997 "The Condition of Slaves in the Americas," in From the Slave Trade to the Challenge of Development: Reflections on the Conditions for a Lasting Peace (Paris: UNESCO).

1997

1997 "`Pawns Will Live When Slaves is Apt to Dye': Credit, Slaving and Pawnship at Old Calabar in the Era of the Slave Trade," LSE Working Papers in Economic History (London, London School of Economics and Political Science) (with David Richardson).

1997

1995 "Afterward" in Jordan Goodman, Paul E. Lovejoy, and Andrew Sherratt, eds., Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology (London: Routledge) (with Jordan Goodman), 229-34.

1995

1995 "The Initial `Crisis of Adaptation': The Impact of British Abolition on the Atlantic Slave Trade in West Africa, 1808-20", in Robin Law, ed., From Slave Trade to `Legitimate' Commerce: The Commercial Transition in Nineteenth-Century West Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) (with David Richardson), 32-56.

1995

1995 "The `Coffee' of the Sudan: Consumption of Kola Nuts in the Sokoto Caliphate in the Nineteenth Century," in Jordan Goodman, Paul E. Lovejoy, and Andrew Sherratt, eds., Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology (London, Routledge), 103-25.

1995

1994 "Pawnship in Africa: Debt Bondage in Historical Perspective," in Toyin Falola and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., Pawnship in Africa: Debt Bondage in Historical Perspective (Boulder, Westview Press) (with Toyin Falola), 1-26.

1994

1994 "The Central Sudan and the Atlantic Slave Trade," in Robert W. Harms, Joseph C. Miller, David C. Newbury, and Michelle D. Wagner, Paths to the Past: African Historical Essays in Honor of Jan Vansina (Atlanta: African Studies Association Press), 345-70.

1994

1992 "Historical Setting," in Helen Metz, ed., Nigeria: A Country Study. Library of Congress, Area Handbook Series, Washington, D.C., 1-83.

1992

1992 "Keeping Slaves in Place. The Secret Debate on the Slavery Question in Northern Nigeria, 1900-1904," in Stanley Engerman and J.E. Inikori, eds., The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press), 49-75 (with J.S. Hogendorn).

1992

1992 "The Ibadan School of History," in Toyin Falola, ed., African Historiography. Essays in Honour of J.F. Ade Ajayi (Lagos and London: Longman).

1992

1989 "Commerce," in Pierre Bonte and Michel Izard, eds., Dictionnaire de l'ethnologie et de l'anthropologie (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France)

1989

1988 "The Reform of Slavery in Early Colonial Northern Nigeria," in S. Miers and R. Roberts, ed., The End of Slavery in Africa (Madison, University of Wisconsin Press), with J.S. Hogendorn, 391-414

1988

1986 "Fugitive Slaves: Resistance to Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate," in Gary Okihiro and Herbert Aptheker, eds., Resistance Not Acquiesence: Studies in African, Afro American and Caribbean History (Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press), 71-95.

1986

1986 "Problems of Slave Control in the Sokoto Caliphate," in Paul E. Lovejoy, ed., Africans in Bondage. Studies in Slavery and the Slave Trade (Madison, African Studies Program), 235-272.

1986

1985 "Merchants, Porters, and Teamsters in the Nineteenth Century Central Sudan," in Catherine Coquery Vidrovitch and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., The Workers of African Trade (Beverly Hills, Sage Publications), with M. B. Duffill, 137-167.

1985

1985 "The Ibadan School and Its Critics," in Bogumil Jewseiwicki and David Newbury, eds., Which History for Which Africans? (Beverly Hills, Sage Publications)

1985

1985 "The Internal Trade of West Africa, 1450 1800," in J. F. A. Ajayi and Michael Crowder, eds., History of West Africa (London, Longman Group Ltd.), vol. I, rev. ed.

1985

1985 "The Volume of the Central Sudan Salt Trade," in G. Liesegang, A. Pasch, A. Jones, eds., Figuring African Trade (Berlin: Reimar).

1985

1985 "The Workers of Trade in Precolonial Africa," in Catherine Coquery Vidrovitch and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., The Workers of African Trade (Beverly Hills, Sage Publications), with Catherine Coquery Vidrovitch, 9-24.

1985

1981 "Slavery in the Context of Ideology," in Paul E. Lovejoy, ed., The Ideology of Slavery in Africa (Beverly Hills, Sage Publications), 11-38.

1981

1981 "Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate," in Paul E. Lovejoy, ed., The Ideology of Slavery in Africa (Beverly Hills, Sage Publications), 200-243.

1981

1979 "Slave Marketing in West Africa," in H. Gemery and J. S. Hogendorn, eds., The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade (New York, Academic Press), 213-35 (with J. S. Hogendorn).

1979

1979 "Slavery in West Africa," in H. Gemery and J. S. Hogendorn, eds., The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade (New York, Academic Press), 181-212 (with M. Klein).

1979

1977 "The Tuareg of the Central Sudan: Gradations in Servility at the Desert Edge (Niger and Nigeria)," in S. Miers and I. Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives (Madison, University of Wisconsin Press), 391-411 (with S. Baier).

1977

Journal Articles

Publication
Year

2015 “Maintaining Network Boundaries: Islamic Law and Commerce from Sahara to Guinea Shores,” Slavery and Abolition, 36:2, 211-32 (with Jennifer Lofkrantz)

2015

2015 "Jihad, 'Era das Revoluções' e história atlântica: desafiando a interpretação de Reis da história brasileira," Topoi, 16:30, 390-401

2015

2014 "Jihad na Africa Ocidental durante a “Era das Revoluções”: em direcao a um dialogo com Eric Hobsbawm e Eugene Genovese," Topoi, 15:28, 22-67

2014

2012 “Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa – What’s in a Name?” Atlantic Studies, 9:2

2012

2012 “Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa – What’s in a Name?” Atlantic Studies, 9:2, 165-84

2012

2011 “Freedom Narratives of Trans-Atlantic Slavery,” Slavery and Abolition, 32:1, 91-107

2011

2011 “Gustavus Vassa, alias Olaudah Equiano, en la Costa de Mosquitos: Supervisor de Plantación y Abolicionista,” Revista de Temas Nicaragüenses, 36, 102-45

2011

2011 “Les origines de Catherine Mulgrave Zimmermann: considérations méthodologiques,” Cahiers des Anneaux de la Mémoire 14, 247-63

2011

2009 “Extending the Frontiers of Transatlantic Slavery, Partially,” Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 11:1, 57-70

2009

2007 “Comparing the Life Histories of Two Muslims in the Americas: Muhammad Kab? Saghanaghu and Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua,” Estudios de Asia y Africa

2007

2007 “Construction of Identity: Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa?” Slavery and Abolition, 28, 1

2007

2007 “Patterns in Regulation and Collaboration in the Slave Trade of West Africa,” Leidschrift, 22, 1

2007

2006 “Autobiography and Memory: Gustavus Vassa and the Abolition of the Slave Trade,” Slavery and Abolition, 27:3, 317-47

2006

2006 “Construction of Identity: Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa?” Historically Speaking, 7:3, 8-9, reprinted in Donald A. Yerxa, ed., Recent Themes in the History of Africa and the Atlantic World: Historians in Conversation (Charleston: University of South Carolina Press, 2008), 93-100

2006

2006 “Mercadores e carregadores das Caravanas do Sudão Central, século XIX,” Tempo: Revista de História (Rio de Janeiro), 10:20, 61-82

2006

2006 “Slavery in Ecclesiastical Archives: Preserving the Records,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 86:2, 337-46 (with Mariza Soares, Jane Landers, and Andrew McMichael)

2006

2006 “The Children of Slavery: The Trans-Atlantic Phase,” Slavery and Abolition, 27:2, 197-218

2006

2005 “The Urban Background of Enslaved Muslims in the Americas,” Slavery and Abolition, 26:3, 347-72

2005

2004 “ ‘This Horrid Hole’: Royal Authority, Commerce and Credit at Bonny, 1690-1840,” Journal of African History, 45:3, 363-92 (with David Richardson)

2004

2002 “Identidade e a Miragem da Ethnicidade: A Jornada de Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua para as Américas,” Afro-Ásia, 27: 9-39

2002

2002 “Islam, Slavery, and Political Transformation in West Africa: Constraints on the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” Outre-Mers: Revue d’histoire, 89: 247-82

2002

2001 “The Business of Slaving: Pawnship in Western Africa, c. 1600-1810,” Journal of African History,42:1, 67-89 (with David Richardson)

2001

2001 “The Oral History of Royal Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate: An Interview with Sallama Dako,” History in Africa, 28: 273-91 (with Sean Stilwell and Ibrahim Hamza)

2001

2000 “Jihad e Escravidao: As Origens dos Escravos Muculmanos de Bahia,” Topoi (Rio de Janeiro), 1, 11-44

2000

2000 “J.K. Cochrane: “‘Exploration in Bornu’: An Account of Borno and Bedde in 1902,” Bulletin of the Museum Society of Maiduguri, 10

2000

1999 “Borgu in the Atlantic Slave Trade,” African Economic History, 27 (with Robin Law)

1999

1999 “Cerner les identities au sein de la diaspora africaine, l’islam et l’esclavage aux Ameriques,” Cahiers des Anneaux de la Memoire, 1, 249-78

1999

1999 “Les origenes de los esclavos en las Americas Perspectivas Methodologicas,” Revista de Historia, 36.

1999

1999 "Trust, Pawnship and Atlantic History: The Institutional Foundations of the Old Calabar Slave Trade,” American Historical Review, 104:2, 332-55 (with David Richardson)

1999

1997 "Editing Nineteenth-Century Intelligence Reports on the Sokoto Caliphate and Borno: The Advantages of a Collaborative Approach," History in Africa, 24, 195-204 (with A.S. Kanya-Forstner).

1997

1997 "La vie quotidienne en Afrique de l'Ouest au temps de la `Route des esclaves'", Diogène, 179, 3-19.

1997

1995 "British Abolition and its Impact on Slave Prices at the Atlantic Coast of Africa, 1783-1850," Journal of Economic History, 55:1 (with David Richardson), 98-119.

1995

1995 "Competing Markets for Male and Female Slaves: Slave Prices in the Interior of West Africa, 1780-1850," International Journal of African Historical Studies, 28:2, 261-93 (with David Richardson).

1995

1994 "Introduction," Special issue on the Sokoto Caliphate and the European Powers, 1890-1906," Paideuma, 49, 7-14 (with A.S. Kanya-Forstner).

1994

1994 "Background to Rebellion: The Origins of Muslim Slaves in Bahia," Slavery and Abolition, 15:2, 151-80.

1994

1994 "Introduction: Unfree Labour in the Development of the Atlantic World," Slavery and Abolition, 15:2 (with N. Rogers)

1994

1993 "C.L. Temple's `Notes on the History of Kano'," Sudanic Africa: A Journal of Historical Sources (with Abdullahi Mahadi and Mansur Ibrahim Mukhtar), 4, 7-76.

1993

1992 "Commentary" on John Hunwick, "Falkeiana II: A Letter from the Amir of Mafara to the Amir of Zamfara," Sudanic Africa. A Journal of Historical Sources, 3, 103-105.

1992

1992 "Collaborative Research in the Recovery of Documentation on the Conquest of the Sokoto Caliphate," Sudanic Africa: A Journal of Historical Sources, 3, 165-172 (with A.S. Kanya-Forstner).

1992

1992 "Murgu: The Wages of Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate," Slavery and Abolition, 24:1, 168-185.

1992

1991 "Miller's Vision of Meillassoux," International Journal of African Historical Studies, 24:1, 133-145.

1991

1990 "Concubinage in the Sokoto Caliphate," Slavery and Abolition, XXI:2, 159-189.

1990

1990 "Revolutionary Mahdism and Resistance to Colonial Rule in the Sokoto Caliphate (1905-1906)," Journal of African History, 31:2, 217-244 (with J.S. Hogendorn).

1990

1989 "The Development and Execution of Frederick Lugard's Policies Toward Slavery in Northern Nigeria," Slavery and Abolition, 10:1, 1-43 (with J.S. Hogendorn).

1989

1989 "The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa: A Review of the Literature," Journal of African History, 30, 365-94

1989

1988 "Concubinage and the Status of Women Slaves in Early Colonial Northern Nigeria," Journal of African History, 29:2, 245-266.

1988

1984 "Commercial Sectors in the Economy of the Nineteenth Century Central Sudan: the Trans Saharan Trade and the Desert Side Salt Trade," African Economic History, 13:85 116.

1984

1982 "Polanyi's `Ports of Trade': Salaga and Kano in the Nineteenth Century," Canadian Journal of African Studies, 16:2, 245-278.

1982

1982 "The Volume of the Atlantic Slave Trade: A Synthesis," Journal of African History, 23:4, 473-501. (Reprinted in Paul Finkelman, ed., Outstanding Articles on Slavery, Hamden, Conn., Garland Publishing, Inc.; also reprinted in David Northrup, ed., The Atlantic Slave Trade, Lexington, Mass., D.C. Heath and Co., 1994).

1982

1980 "Kola in the History of West Africa," Cahiers d'études africaines. 20:1/2 97-134; 173-175. Commentaries by Yves Person, Stephen Baier, Jean Loup Amselle, and Jean Pierre Chauveau, 149-171.

1980

1979 "Indigenous African Slavery," Historical Reflections/ Reflexions Historiques, 6:1, 19-6l. Reprinted in Michael Craton, ed., Roots and Branches: Current Directions in Slave Studies (Toronto, Pergamon Press), 19 6l. Commentaries by Igor Kopytoff and Frederick Cooper, 62 83.

1979

1979 "Pastoralism in Africa," Peasant Studies, 8:2, 73-85.

1979

1979 "The Characteristics of Plantations in the Nineteenth Century Sokoto Caliphate (Islamic West Africa)," American Historical Review, 74:4, 1267-92.

1979

1978 "Notes on the Asl al Wangariyyin," Kano Studies, I:3, 46-52.

1978

1978 "Oral Data Collection and the Economic History of the Central Sudan," Savanna, 8:1, 71-4 (with J.S. Hogendorn).

1978

1978 "Plantations in the Economy of the Sokoto Caliphate," Journal of African History, 19:3, 341-68.

1978

1978 "The Borno Salt Industry," International Journal of African Historical Studies, 11:4, 629-68.

1978

1978 "The Role of the Wangara in the Economic Transformation of the Central Sudan in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries," Journal of African History, 19:2, 173-93 (Reprinted in A.J.R. Russell-Wood, ed., An Expanding World: The European Impact on World History 1450-1800 (Birmingham, Variorium Press, 1996).

1978

1975 "The Desert Side Economy of the Central Sudan," International Journal of African Historical Studies, 8:4, 551-81: reprinted in Michael Glantz, ed., Drought in the Sahel: The Politics of a Natural Disaster (New York, Praeger, 1976), 145 75 (with S. Baier).

1975

1974 "Interregional Monetary Flows in the Precolonial Trade of Nigeria," Journal of African History, 15:4, 563-85.

1974

1973 "The Kambarin Beriberi: The Formation of a Specialized Group of Hausa Kola Traders in the Nineteenth Century," Journal of African History, 14:4, 633-57.

1973

1971 "Long Distance Trade and Islam: The Case of the Nineteenth Century Hausa Kola Trade," Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 5:4, 537-47.

1971

Conference Papers

Publication
Year

“Narrative Strategies in the Explication of the Slave Experience in Africa and America,” Comparative History Workshop, Niagara-on-the-lake, Ont., March 19-21, 2010

2010

“African Slavery: Was it a ‘Migration’?,” Conference on Forced African Labour: Slavery, Migration, and Contemporary Bondage in Africa, Wilberforce Institute, University of Hull, September 23-25, 2009

2009

“Debt and Slavery: the History of a Process of Enslavement,” Indian Ocean World Centre, McGill University, May 7-9, 2009

2009

Institut d’été/d’hivernage, “Esclavage en patrimoine: Représenter l’histoire dans l’espace public,” Port-au-Prince, Haiti, décembre 2009

2009

"Gustavus Vassa and the Scottish Enlightenment,” Panel on "Biography and History: The Debate over Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative," American Historical Association Annual Meeting, New York, January 2, 2009

2009

“Indigenous Interpretations of History in West Africa before 1800,” William A. Brown Memorial Lecture on Islam in West Africa, University of Wisconsin, March 12, 2009

2009

“L’impact de l’abolition de la traite par la Grande-Bretagne sur les discours nationaux en France, aux Etats-Unis, au Danemark, en Espagne, au Portugal et aux Pays-Bas,” Paris – June 11-13, 2009

2009

Key Note Address, “Rethinking Africa and the Atlantic World,” University of Stirling, September 3-6, 2009

2009

“Slavery and Migration in African History,” WISE Workshop, “Understanding Slavery: Historical Slave Systems and Contemporary Problems,” Wilberforce Institute, University of Hull, September 21-22, 2009

2009

“Tales of Slavery: Narratives of Slavery, the Slave Trade and Enslavement in Africa,” University of Toronto, Toronto, May 20-23, 2009

2009

“The Memorialization of Slavery and the Slave Trade in Freedom Narratives,” Early Modern History Workshop, University of Minnesota, February 27, 2009

2009

Workshop on Digital Archiving, Jamaica Archives, Spanish Town, Jamaica, May 29, 2008, sponsored by British Library Endangered Archives Programme and the Tubman Institute

2008

Conference on “Diáspora, nación y diferencia. Poblaciones de origen africano en México y Centroamérica,” Xalapa, Veracruz, México, June 10-13, 2008

2008

“A British-American Forum,” Fraunces Tavern, New York City, June 2, 2008, in association with Beecher House Society and Wilberforce Institute (WISE)

2008

“Biography and History – The Life Stories of Two Muslims of the Slave Trade,” Lecture, Universidad de Costa Rica, May 6, 2008

2008

“British Imperial Ambitions on the Mosquito Shore in the eighteenth century and the Abolition of ‘Indian’ Slavery,” Conference on “Diáspora, nación y diferencia. Poblaciones de origen africano en México y Centroamérica,” Xalapa, Veracruz, México, June 10-13, 2008

2008

“Carnival: ‘People’s Art’ and ‘Taking Back the Streets’,” Toronto, July 30-August 3, 2008, co-sponsored by the Tubman Institute and Kofler Centre at the University of Toronto, organized by Christopher Innes, Canada Research Chair, and co-sponsored by the Tubman Institute

2008

“Commerce and Credit in Katsina in the Nineteenth Century” (with Yacine Daddi Addoun), Workshop on “Historical Constructions of “Race” and Social Hierarchy in Muslim West and North Africa”, Dakar, Senegal, December 9-12, 2008, sponsored by the Tubman Institute and Institute for the Study of Islamic Thought in Africa (ISITA), Northwestern University, in collaboration with the Department of History, Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Dakar

2008

“Comparative Plantation Systems: Conceptualizing the Role of Slavery in the Evolution of the Modern World,” University of Mississippi, November 20, 2008

2008

“Economic Systems along the Trade Route,” Conference on “Slave Routes: Resistance, Abolition, and Creative Process,” New York University, October 9-12, 2008

2008

“Empire, Slave Trade and Slavery: Rebuilding Civil Society in Sierra Leone Past and Present,” Wilberforce Institute (WISE), University of Hull, September 26-28, 2008; organized in collaboration with the Tubman Institute

2008

“Esclavitud, ciudadanía y memoria: Puertos Menores en el Caribe y el Atlántico,” Simposio Internacional, San Fernando de Omoa, Honduras, November 13-16, 2008, co-sponsored by La Secretaria de Cultura, Artes y Deportes, Instituto Hondureño de Antropología e Historia, and Tubman Institute

2008

« Festival on Memories of Slavery – Documenting the Heritage of the Slave Trade through Video - Patrimoine et mémoire de l'esclavage et de la traite. Festival de la vidéo de recherche » The First Annual Research Video Festival, Nat Taylor Cinema, York University, April 28, 2008

2008

Colloque International Lancement du Programme EURSCL (7e PCRD), < Les silences nationaux sur les exclavages et les traits et leurs heritages contemporains sur la question des migrations > Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Fort de France, Martinique, March 21, 2008

2008

“Living history: Encountering the memory of the heirs of slavery,” workshop at the American Historical Association Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 6, 2008

2008

Meeting in the Gambia on restoration of national archives through a pilot digitization Project, funded through the Tubman Social Justice Fund and in collaboration with the Tubman Institute, May 13-16, 2008

2008

“Memoralizing Slavery and the Slave Trade in ‘Freedom Narratives’,” Department of History, Brock University, March 7, 2008

2008

Panel Discussion, “This Ambiguous Anniversary,” Conference on “Ending the International Slave Trade: A Bicentenary Inquiry,” College of Charleston, March 26-29, 2008

2008

Round table discussion with the Honorable Governor General of Canada, "De la fin de l'esclavage à la diversité culturelle: se souvenir d'hier pour mieux dialoguer aujourd'hui," Bordeaux, May 10, 2008; organized through Office of the Governor General of Canada

2008

“Scarification and the Loss of History in the African Diaspora,” Lecture, Department of History, University of Pittsburgh, February 5-6, 2008

2008

“Scarification and the Loss of History in the African Diaspora,” Colloque International Lancement du Programme EURSCL (7e PCRD), < Les silences nationaux sur les exclavages et les traits et leurs heritages contemporains sur la question des migrations > Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Fort de France, Martinique, March 21, 2008

2008

“Second Workshop on Endangered Archives,” Tubman Institute, York University, April 19, 2008

2008

“Biography and Autobiography: Representations of Self and Others in the Writings of Africans during the Era of Slavery,” presented at « Blacks or Niggers », « Africans or Hyphenated Afro’s », « Slave descendants or Immigrants » Deconstructing the categories of designation and questioning the representations of identity in the past and present, Institut Interdisciplinaire Virtuel des Hautes Études sur les Esclavages et les Traites - Virtual Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies of Slavery and the Slave Trade, Aix-en-Provence, August 23-29, 2008

2008

“The Legacies of Slavery for Africa and America,” University of British Columbia, October 29-30, 2008

2008

“The Province of Senegambia – An Early British Colony in Africa (1765-83),” presented at “Empire, Slave Trade and Slavery: Rebuilding Civil Society in Sierra Leone Past and Present,” Wilberforce Institute (WISE), University of Hull, September 26-28, 2008

2008

Workshop on Digital Archiving, Jamaica Archives, Spanish Town, Jamaica, May 29, 2008, sponsored by British Library Endangered Archives Programme and the Tubman Institute, and organized by Nadine Hunt

2008

Institut d’été/d’hivernage , « Blacks or Negroes », « Africans or Hyphenated Afro’s », « Slave descendants or Immigrants » Deconstructing the categories of designation and questioning the representations of identity in the past and present,” Institut Interdisciplinaire Virtuel des Hautes Études sur les Esclavages et les Traites - Virtual Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies of Slavery and the Slave Trade, Aix-en-Provence, August 23-29, 2008

2008

“African Trajectories of Slavery: Perceptions, Practices, Experiences,” Centre of African Studies, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, 25-26 May 2007

2007

“Alcohol in the Atlantic World: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives,” York University, Toronto (Canada) 24-27 October, 2007

2007

“Confronting Slavery: Towards a Dialogue of Understanding,” Rio de Janeiro, 22-25 November 2007

2007

“Essaouira 2007: 10ème édition du Festival Gnawas et Musiques du Monde,” Morocco, June 19-23, 2007

2007

“Freedom: Retrospective and Prospective,” University of the West Indies, Jamaica, August 31 – September 1, 2007

2007

“III Encontro Internacional de História de Angola,” Ministério da Cultura, Luanda, Angola, 25-28 September 2007

2007

Keynote, Conference on Venture Smith, University of Connecticut, 20-21 September 2007

2007

“Micro-histoire et histoires de vie,” CIRESC Symposium, EHESS, Paris, May 31–June 1, 2007

2007

“Scotland, Slavery and Abolition,” New College, University of Edinburgh, November 10, 2007

2007

“Sex, Power and Slavery: The Dynamics of Carnal Relations under Enslavement,” McGill University, Montreal, 19-21 April 2007

2007

“Slavery: Unfinished Business,” Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation (WISE), University of Hull, 17-19 May 2007

2007

“ ‘The Bloody Writing is for ever torn’: Domestic and International Consequences of the First Governmental Efforts to Abolish the Atlantic Slave Trade,” Omohundro Institute, Cape Coast, Ghana, 8-12 August, 2007

2007

Commentary, “Navigating around Colonialism: Culture and Exchange beyond the Reaches of the Imperial State,” Atlantic History Workshop, "'Recapricorning' the Atlantic: Luso-Brazilian and Luso-African Perspectives on the Atlantic World," University of Michigan and Michigan State University, May 11-12, 2006

2006

“Gustavus Vassa, alias Olaudah Equiano, on the Mosquito Shore: Plantation Overseer cum Abolitionist,” Symposium on Slavery, Culture, and Religion, Cahuita, Costa Rica, 11-14 February 2006

2006

“Harriet Tubman,” Conference on “Names on the Wall,” Wilberforce Institute for the study of Slavery and Emancipation (WISE), University of Hull, July 6-8, 2006

2006

“Identity and Diaspora: The Interesting Narrative of Gustavus Vassa, alias Olaudah Equiano,” McMaster University, March 2, 2006

2006

“Olaudah Equiano, alias Gustavus Vassa: African Icon or American Trickster?” John S. Saul Interdisciplinary Graduate Seminar, York University, March 14, 2006

2006

“The Myth of Liberia and the African Setting of the Kru Coast: A Critique of David Brian Davis, ‘Exiles, Exodus, and Promised Lands’,” Tanner Lectures, Stanford University, February 22-24, 2006

2006

“The Slave Trade as Enforced Migration,” Conference on “Removing Peoples: Forced Migration in the Modern World (1850 – 1950),” University of York, April 20 – 22, 2006

2006

“Amerindian, African, European – Interface, Interaction, Intercourse,” Keynote Address, Conference on Activating the Past: Latin America in the Black Atlantic, UCLA, April 23-4, 2005

2005

“Autobiography and Memory: Gustavus Vassa and the Abolition of the Slave Trade,” Colloque international/International Conference: Mémoires croisées : esclavage et diaspora africaine – Crossing Memories : Slavery and African Diaspora, Université Laval, 2-3 May 2005

2005

“Comparing the Life Histories of Two Muslims in the Americas,” El Colegio de Mexico, 26 April 2005

2005

“Las rutas de la esclavitud y la experiencia en África,” Conference on Negros, mulatos y morenos de Guerrero y sus costas: afrodescendientes y diversidad cultural, Acapulco, 27-29 April 2005

2005

“The African Dimension,” Conferencia sobre Etnicidad en la Región Centroamericana, Antigua Guatemala, 9-12 March 2005

2005

“Alternatives to Revolution and Insurrection – Olaudah Equiano and the Abortive Plantation Scheme of Dr. Charles Irving on the Mosquito Shore,” Conference on Revolución, Independencia y Emancipación. La lucha contra la esclavitud, Limón, Costa Rica, 26-28 August 2004

2004

Chair, Panel on Mediterranean and African Political Economies, Conference “The Atlantic World and Virginia, 1550-1624,” Omohundro Institute on Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, March 2004

2004

Chair, Panel on Yoruba Slavery, “Yoruba in the History of Trans-Atlantic Slavery,” Conference on “Perspectives on Yoruba History and Culture,” University of Texas, 26-28 March 2004

2004

“Civilian Casualties in the Context of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” Conference on “Collateral Damage,” University of Toronto, 28-29 May 2004

2004

Commentator, Between Race and Place: Blacks and Blackness in Central America and the Mainland Caribbean, Tulane University, November 12-13, 2004

2004

Panel Coordinator, Canadian Association of African Studies Annual Meeting, Joint sessions with the African Studies Association, New Orleans, November 2004

2004

Session Organizer, African Diaspora Panels, African Studies Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, November 2004

2004

“The Children of Slavery - the Trans-Atlantic Phase,” Conference on “Children and Slavery,” Université d’Avignon, Avignon, 20-22 May 2004

2004

“Urban and Rural: The Experiences of Enslaved Muslims in Africa and the Americas,” Atlantic History Seminar, Harvard University, November 6, 2004

2004

“An Afro-Centric Perspective on the Trans-Atlantic World during the Era of Slavery,” Keynote Address, Sixth Annual Africana Studies Student Research Colloquium, Bowling Green State University, March 21, 2003

2003

“An Afro-Centric Perspective on the Trans-Atlantic World during the Era of Slavery,” Keynote Address, Sixth Annual Africana Studies Student Research Colloquium, Bowling Green State University, March 21, 2003

2003

“An Afro-Centric Perspective on Trans-Atlantic Slavery,” African Studies Symposium, Brock University, 4 February 2003

2003

“Archives, Intangible Heritage, and Museums,” presented at “African Diaspora: The Making of the Atlantic World,” Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, June 28 - July 1, 2003

2003

Chair, "African Urban Spaces: History and Culture," University of Texas, Austin, March 28 - 30, 2003

2003

Chair, Panel on Slavery, Captives and Captive Labour, Tri-University History Conference, University of Guelph, 8 November 2003

2003

“Escravidão Africana & Tráfico Atlântico nas Américas,” Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) June 2-4, 2003

2003

“La Narrativa Africana y la Diáspora,” Festival de la Cultura Negra, Limón, Costa Rica, 22 August 2003

2003

“Narratives of Trans-Atlantic Slavery: The Lives of Two Muslims, Muhammad Kab? Saghanaghu and Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua,” Conference on “Literary Manifestations of the African Diaspora,” University of Cape Coast, Ghana, 10-14 November 2003

2003

Organizer, Workshop on the Underground Railroad and the History of Blacks in Upper Canada, The Harriet Tubman Resource Centre on the African Diaspora, York University, February 21, 2003

2003

“Rural and Urban in the Context of Caribbean Slavery and Emancipation,” Conference on “City Life in Caribbean History,” Cave Hill, Barbados, 11-13 December 2003

2003

“Slavery, the Bilad al-Sudan and the Frontiers of the African Diaspora,” Conference on “Islam, Slavery and Diaspora,” York University, 24-26 October 2003

2003

“The Yoruba Factor in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, Boston, 30 November 2003

2003

Forum for the Expansion of Europe and Global Interaction, Huntington Library, February 14-16, 2002

2002

Chair, Panel on “After Abolition: Europe and Africa,” Canadian Association of African Studies, Toronto, May 29-June 1, 2002

2002

Chair, “Art and Architecture in Urban Africa,” Conference on “African Urban Spaces: History and Culture,” University of Texas, Austin, 28-30 March 2002

2002

“Muhammd Kaba Saghanughu and the Muslim Community of Jamaica,” Syracuse University, April 18, 2002

2002

Organizer, Workshop on Database Construction and the African Diaspora, York University, 2-12 July 2002, www.yorku.ca/nhp

2002

“Publishing Workshop,” Conference on Nigeria in the 20th Century, University of Texas, March 29-31, 2002

2002

Round table, “The Future of Atlantic World Studies,” Allen Morris Conference on the History of Florida and the Atlantic World, Florida State University, February 1-2, 2002

2002

Roundtable, African American Experience Project, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Cultures, New York Public Library, 23 November 2002

2002

“The Arabic Manuscript of Muhammad Kaba Saghanughu of Jamaica, c. 1823,” The Second Conference on Caribbean Culture, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, January 9-12, 2002 (with Yacine Daddi Addoun)

2002

“The Sahara-Atlantic Divide, Or How Women Fitted into the Slave Trade,” Conference on “Slavery and Forced Labour: Women in Slavery,” Université d’Avignon, 16-18 October 2002

2002

“Trans-Atlantic Transformations: The Origins and Identities of Africans in the Americas,” Workshop on “The Trans-Atlantic Construction of the Notions of ‘Race’, Black Culture, Blackness and Antiracism: Towards a New Dialogue between Researchers in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean,” Gorée, Senegal, 11-17 November 2002

2002

“A Importância de Pesquisa em Parceria na Reconstrução da História da Diáspora Africana – O Projeto da UNESCO de Rotas de Escravos e a Experiência do Projeto York/UNESCO do Interior da Nigéria,” Seminar o “Mês da consciencia negra,” Rio de Janeiro, 6-8 November 2001

2001

“Anglo-Efik Relations and Protection against Illegal Enslavement at Old Calabar, 1740-1807,” Conference on “Fighting Back: African Strategies Against the Slave Trade,” Rutgers University, February 16-17, 2001 (with David Richardson)

2001

“Baquaqua in Brazil,” Seminar, Universidade Federale da Bahia, February 2001

2001

“Biography and Autobiography,” NEH Summer Institute for College Instructors, “Roots: The African Dimension of Early American History and Culture, through the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” University of Virginia, Charlottesville, June 28, 2001

2001

“Community of Believers: Trinidad Muslims and the Return to Africa, 1810-1850,” Conference on “Aguda: Aspects of Afro-Brazilian Heritage in the Bight of Benin,” Ecole du Patrimoine Africain, Porto Novo, Republique du Benin, 26-30 November 2001 (with David Trotman)

2001

“Conceptualizing and Defining the African Diaspora,” Roundtable Discussion, Symposium on the African Diaspora, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York, May 4, 2001

2001

“Creating the Community of Believers: African Muslims in Trinidad, c. 1800-1850,” Second International Conference, “Esclavage et religion dans les temps modernes,” Essaouira, Morocco, June 15-17, 2001 (with David Trotman)

2001

“Cyrus Francis Perkins’ Busha’s Mistress, or Catherine the Fugitive: Historical and Literary Context,” Harriet Tubman Seminar, York University, March 24, 2001 (with Verene Shepherd)

2001

“Debating the African Diaspora: African Studies and African Diaspora Studies,” Roundtable Discussion, African Studies Association Annual Meeting, Houston, Texas, November 15-18, 2001

2001

“From Slaves to Palm Oil: Anglo-Biafran Commercial Relations 1767-1841,” Conference on “Maritime Empires,” National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, July 2-3, 2001 (with David Richardson)

2001

“Kola Nuts in Cartegena: 17th Century Trans-Atlantic Exchange,” Simposio internacional, “Pasado, Presente y Futuro de los Afrodescendientes,” Cartagena, 18-20 October, 2001 (with Renée Souldore-La France)

2001

“Methodology through the Ethnic Lens,” Pathways: A Conference on Sources and Methods in African Scholarship, University of Texas, March 30-April 1, 2001

2001

“Methodology through the Ethnic Lens: The Study of Atlantic Africa,” Historian’s Craft, Department of History, York University, October 25, 2001

2001

“The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua," Conference on “Slave Narratives,” Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio, October 11-13, 2001

2001

“The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: A Man of the African Diaspora,” World Archaeological Congress, Intercongress on the African Diaspora, Jacob Gelt Dekker Institute, Curaçao, 23-29 April, 2001

2001

“The Ethnic Origins of Enslaved Africans in the Americas,” Atlantic History Lecture Series, University of Southern Maine, February 26, 2001

2001

“The Importance of Collaborative Research in the Study of the African Diaspora,” Workshop on Atlantic Crossings: Women’s Voices, Women’s Stories from the Caribbean and the Nigerian Hinterland, Dartmouth College, May 18-20, 2001

2001

“The State of Africa, African-American, Caribbean, and African Diaspora Studies,” Roundtable Discussion, Princeton University, October 10, 2001

2001

“The State of African, African-American, Caribbean, and African Diaspora Stuides,” A symposium, Princeton University, October 10, 2001

2001

“The Visual Representations of Ethnicity of the Slave Trade,” Byrne Lecture, Vanderbilt University, March 27, 2001

2001

“Ethnic Designations of the Slave Trade,” Black Atlantic/African Diaspora Seminar Series, Rutgers University, February 24, 2000

2000

“Identity and the Mirage of Ethnicity: Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua’s Journey to the Americas,” Conference on Liberté, identité, integration et servitude, Al-Akhawayn University, Morocco, 29-30 Juin 2000

2000

“Letters of the Old Calabar Slave Trade, 1761-1789,” Forum on European Expansion and Global Interaction, St. Augustine, Florida, February 17-19, 2000

2000

“Muslim Freedmen in the Atlantic World: Images of Manumission and Self-Redemption,” Conference on “From Slavery to Freedom: Manumission in the Atlantic World,” October 4-6, 2000, College of Charleston, Charleston

2000

“Slavery and Memory in an Islamic Society: Whose Audience? Which Audience?” Conference on Historians and their Audiences: Mobilizing History for the Millenium, York University, 13-15 April 2000

2000

“That ‘Horrid Hole’: Bonny and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” Conference on “Reprecussions of the Slave Trade: The African Diaspora and the Hinterland of the Bight of Biafra,” Nike Lake, Enugu, July 2000 (with David Richardson)

2000

“The Black Atlantic in the Construction of the “Western” World: Alternative Approaches to the “Europeanization” of the Americas,” Conference on Recasting European and Canadian History: National Consciousness, Migration, Multicultural Lives, Bremen, Germany, 18-21 May 2000

2000

Approach to Teaching


Teaching involves mentoring. It requires knowledge of the field being studied and a willingness to distinguish between learning the facts and discovering how to think critically. Teaching involves expression through writing and learning that the written word is different from the spoken word. Teaching also requires a political and moral commitment to social justice, gender equity, and the search for the truth.


Current Courses

Term Course Number Section Title Type
Fall 2018 GS/HIST5901 3.0 A The African Diaspora SEMR
Fall/Winter 2018 AP/HIST2750 6.0 A African History, 1800 to the Present LECT


Upcoming Courses

Term Course Number Section Title Type
Fall/Winter 2018 AP/HIST2750 6.0 A African History, 1800 to the Present LECT


As Distinguished Research Professor and Canada Research Chair in African Diaspora History at York University, I have published over 30 books and 100 articles and chapters in books on African history and African diaspora history.

PAUL E. LOVEJOY is Distinguished Research Professor, Department of History, York University, and holds the Canada Research Chair in African Diaspora History. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Director of the Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on the Global Migrations of African Peoples, and formerly a member of the UNESCO “Slave Route” Project (Section du dialogue interculturel). He is Editor of the Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora for Africa World Press, and has been awarded an Honorary Degree, Doctor of the University, University of Stirling in 2007, the President’s Research Award of Merit at York University in 2009, the Distinguished Africanist Award by the University of Texas at Austin in 2010, the Life Time Achievement Award in 2011 from the Canadian Association of African Studies, and the Teaching Award from the Faculty of Graduate Studies, York University in 2012.

Degrees

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin
M.Sc., University of Wisconsin
B.Sc., Clarkson College of Technology
Hononary Degree, Doctor of the University, University of Stirling
Director, Harriet Tubman Institute, York University

Professional Leadership

Editorial Board, Studies in Global Slavery (Damian Alan Pargas and Jeff Fynn-Paul, eds.), Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2014-2015
Advisory Board, Cátedra de Estudios de África y el Caribe (Chair in African and Caribbean Studies), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2011-2015
International Scientific Committee, UNESCO General History of Africa, 2012-2015
Board of Directors, Pan-African Universities Press, 2015
Founding Director, The Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on Africa and its Diasporas, 2008-2012
International Scientific Committee, UNESCO “Slave Route” Project, 1997-2011
General Editor, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora, Africa World Press, Trenton, NJ

Executive Committee, Advanced Research and Technology Collaboratory for the Americas (ARTCA)

Co editor, African Economic History, 1991-present

Editorial Board, Slavery and Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies, 2003-present

Editorial Board, Atlantic Studies: Literary, Cultural and Historical Perspectives, 2004-present

Conselho Consultivo da Revista, Tempo, Revista do Departamento de História da Universidade Federal Fluminense, 2005-present

H-AfResearch Advisory Board, 2003-present

Advisory Board, William Wilberforce Museum, Hull, 2005-07

Editorial Board, Oxford Encyclopaedia of Economic History (London: Oxford University Press, 2003)

Co-Organizer of the “Harriet Tubman Seminar,” Tubman Institute, York University

Conseil Scientifique de l’Institut Béninois d’Etudes et de Recherche sur la Diaspora Africaine (IBERDA), Université Natonale du Bénin

Text and Testimony Collective, University of the West Indies

College of Assessors, Canada Research Chair Program, 2002

Advisory Board, Canadian Journal of History, 1998

Series Editor, African Modernization and Development, Westview Press, 1986-98

Series Co-Editor, African Nations and Societies in History, Westview Press, 1992-98

Convener, UNESCO/SSHRCC Summer Institute, “Identifying Enslaved Africans: The ‘Nigerian’ Hinterland and the African Diaspora,” York University, 1997

Co-chair, African Studies Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, 1994

Guest Curator, Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool, 1992-94

Editorial Board, African Studies Review, 1988-1991

Editorial Board, Journal of African History, 1986 90

Editorial Board, Canadian Journal of African Studies, 1983 90

Board of Directors, Innovation York, 1986-90

Board of Directors, Ontario Molecular Diagnostics, Inc., 1987-90

Board of Directors, World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre, 1987-89

Co-editor, Journal of Asian and African Studies, 1987

Executive Committee, Canadian Association of Africa Studies, 1983 85

Editorial Board, African Economic History, 1976 1982

Community Contributions

Implementation of the Itineraries of African Canadian Memory with UNESCO Slave Route Project, 2010-2012 Summer Programme for Students (age 14-18), Tubman Institute, summers

Research Interests

History , African Studies, Culture and Cultural Studies, Race and Racism, Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Slavery; African Economic, History

Current Research Projects

SHADD: Testimonies of Enslaved Africans from the Era of Slavery

    Summary:

    The SHADD Biography Project focuses on the enforced migration of “Atlantic Africans,” that is enslaved Africans in the Atlantic world during the era of the slave trade, through an examination of biographical accounts of individuals born in Africa who were enslaved in the 16-19th century. The focus is on testimony, the voices of individual Africans. The Project is named for Mary Ann Shadd, abolitionist, Canadian, first woman newspaper editor (Voice of the Fugitive) in North America, in recognition of her political and intellectual commitment to document the Underground Railroad and resistance to slavery in North America. SHADD also identifies the website Studies in the History of the African Diaspora---Documents (www.harriettubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD), which houses facsimile and transcribed versions of testimonies. The SHADD Biography Project seeks to use an online digital repository of autobiographical testimonies and biographical data of Atlantic Africans to analyze patterns in the slave trade from West Africa, specifically in terms of where individuals came from, why they were enslaved, and what happened to them. The Project focuses on people born in Africa and hence in most cases had been born free rather than on those who were born into slavery in the Americas. Our contribution will add specifically concentrate on those who experienced the “Middle Passage,” i.e., the Atlantic crossing, which is often seen as a defining moment in the slavery experience. The genre “slave narrative” is thereby expanded through a study of accounts of slaves born in Africa. The SHADD Project focuses on biographical testimony as the fundamental unit of analysis, whether text arises from first person memory or via amanuensis, and whenever possible is supplemented with biographical details culled from legal, ecclesiastical, and other types of records. The Project will integrate testimonies and other data from several projects. This includes the research of the co-applicants and collaborators, who want to integrate databases in a fashion that will be innovative and creative. Lovejoy brings a range of testimonies focusing on the Central Sudan but including Yoruba, Nupe and other West African cases; Lovejoy is currently working with co-applicant, Kolapo, and collaborators, Kelley and Akurang-Parry, in the generation of materials on West Africa, along with Schwarz. In addition, Lovejoy, Schwarz and Banting Fellow Bezerra are working on biographical information about individuals taken off slave ships by the British navy and designated "Liberated Africans," who can be followed in the documentary record. In collaboration with Co-applicant, Le Glaunec, and Collaborator, Landers, these West African and “Liberated African” data will be combined with data from the French Caribbean, including information from fugitive slave advertisements, and in the case of Spanish and Portuguese colonies, from baptismal and other documentation maintained by the Church. Our intention is to identify individuals in the several collections of documents that amount to massive amounts of material. Individual testimonies are assembled on Google Drive, from where documents are transcribed into files on individuals and then verified. Specific bodies of data will be the focus of PhD and MA research projects. The Project contributes to an understanding of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its impact on West Africa as gleaned from biographical accounts. Scholars in several disciplines other than history, including literature studies and sociology will benefit from the project, which also will interest individuals undertaking genealogical research.The SHADD website allows students, the scholarly community, and the general access to the extensive data in an interactive form.

    Description:

    SHADD Biography Project – Description Objectives – The SHADD Biography Project focuses on the autobiographical testimonies of Africans from the era of the slave trade. The challenge of the project is to demonstrate that the history of Africans in the era of the slave trade can be recovered, and that this history is essential in our understanding of the modern world and its multicultural diversity. Because of the stigma of slavery, the historical importance and influence of the African diaspora has been systematically and institutionally silenced and forgotten. The aim of the SHADD Biography Project is to break this chain of silence by assembling, making accessible, and analyzing biographical and autobiographical accounts of Africans from the era of the slave trade. Although the historical literature and the extent of scholarly attention have both assumed that accounts of Africans do not exist or are relatively few and insignificant in number, the SHADD project has already identified detailed accounts of several thousand individuals from the late 18th century through the 19th century. Moreover, the analysis of the records of the abolition suppression campaign of the first half of the 19th century allows a further study of approximately 100,000 individuals, many of whose biographies can be reconstructed. Our objective is to combine the materials assembled by members of the team into a common dataset based on individuals and their experiences and identities rather than abstract numbers that dominates the discussion at the present time. This wealth of material allows the possibility of examining the history of the period from the end of the sixteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century in considerable detail as revealed in life histories. The African migration of this period constituted more than 90 percent of all trans-Atlantic migration and hence was fundamental to the development of the Americas and the Atlantic world during this period. The issues that are raised relate to the silencing of this story. Why is it that the African origins of the modern world are treated the way they have been, with neglect, denial, and non-scientific prejudice, when simple logic expects a strong and powerful influence on the development of the modern world? An alternate perspective on the development of the modern world has been argued by Lovejoy and others, although without much noticeable effect on the scholarly literature. It is the challenge of this project to confront this neglect by assembling an overwhelming database of materials on individual life histories of as many as 200,000 people who were born in Africa, enslaved, and taken into slavery, often sent across the Atlantic or at least with that destination in mind. The project is designed to advance scholarly knowledge of trans-Atlantic migration and corresponding influences of that migration on western Africa and the Americas, and implicitly Europe. The contribution to knowledge potentially could affect the perspective on history in relation to the development of the Americas and the rise of western European global domination. The SHADD Biography Project, based at the Harriet Tubman Institute at York University in Toronto and collaborating with scholars at Vanderbilt University, the University of Worcester, Université de Sherbrooke, the University of Guelph, and Shippensburg University, seeks to establish an online digital repository of autobiographical testimonies and biographical data of Atlantic Africans during the era of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The SHADD Biography Project concentrates on the life stories of individuals who were born in Africa but were destined for the Atlantic world via slavery. These are the individuals whom we are identifying as “Atlantic Africans.” The Project is named for Mary Ann Shadd, abolitionist, Canadian, editor of Voice of the Fugitive and the first woman newspaper editor in North America, in recognition of her political and intellectual commitment to document the period of the Underground Railroad, resistance to slavery in North America, and the flight of African Americans into exile in Canada. SHADD also identifies the website of the Biography Project, SHADD: Studies in the History of the African Diaspora—Documents (www.harriettubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD), which is intended to house facsimile and transcribed versions of all testimonies. The SHADD Biography Project makes available material on the individuals who helped to form the African Diaspora. Specifically the SHADD Project focuses on men, women and children who were born in Africa and in most cases were born free and therefore can be distinguished from the enslaved people born in the Americas who were born into slavery. The significance of this distinction has been recognized in differentiating those often referred to as creole because they were born in the Americas from those who came from Africa. The focus of this project is on those who clearly came from Africa. In the analysis of slavery, it is recognized that being born in Africa affected how the enslaved were socialized and disciplined to the work regime, but most analysis fails to break through the facelessness of slavery, in which individual personality was erased through the rupture from homelands, the physical and sexual abuse of the Middle Passage, the change of names, and the incorporation into the household of the prison. The danger in analysing slavery is the loss of perspective, succumbing to empathy for the terror of being a slave, when in secret, private moments, we should postulate, the memory of home persisted and even helped sustain broken bodies and tortured minds. The aim of the project is to sift the vast bodies of historical documentation to recover the stories of what happened to people. The SHADD Project includes autobiographical testimony as the fundamental unit of text, whether given in the first person or via amanuensis; personal testimony is supplemented with biographical details culled from legal, ecclesiastical, and other types of records. The SHADD Project will integrate testimonies and other data from several projects. This includes the research of the co-applicants and collaborators, who want to integrate databases in a fashion that will be innovative and creative. Paul Lovejoy brings a range of testimonies focusing on the Central Sudan but including Yoruba, Nupe and other West African cases, including the biographies of Muslims in Brazil and particularly the 1835 uprising in Bahia; Lovejoy is currently working with Sean Kelley in the generation of materials on West Africa, along with Suzanne Schwarz. In addition, Lovejoy, Schwarz and Bezerra are working on biographical information about individuals taken off slave ships by the British navy and designated “Liberated Africans,” who can be followed in the documentary record. Co-applicant Femi Kolapo and Kwabena Akurang-Parry contribute biographical accounts from central Nigeria and southern Ghana, respectively. In collaboration with Co-applicant, Jean-Pierre Le Glaunec, and Collaborator, Jane Landers, these West African and Liberated African data will be combined with data from the French Caribbean, including information from fugitive slave advertisements, and in the case of Spanish and Portuguese colonies, from baptismal and other documentation maintained by the Church. Our intention is to identify individuals in the several collections of documents that amount to massive amounts of material. Testimonies will be assembled and transcribed. The project has expertise in areas of West Africa and the Americas and has access to a wealth of documentation that crosses the Atlantic. Context (including literature review and theoretical approach) – The study of the African past in both West Africa and in the Americas can be enhanced enormously through the analysis of primary texts that derive from individual life histories. The participants in this project are in the forefront of collecting text-based materials, both from published primary sources and from numerous archives in more than 20 countries. In our collective opinion, the study of West African history and the history of the African diaspora can take a giant step forward through the proposed SHADD Biography Project. Each member of the team has made essential and substantial contributions to the collection of biographical data and to its analysis through their publications, as reflected in each c.v. and the list of references. The nature of our individual contributions has usually been episodic, following one or a few individuals and trying to reconstruct life histories in specific contexts. Indeed, we are not the only ones that have contextualized biography as individual case studies. Other excellent work can attributed to James Sweet, Walter Hawthorne, Martin Klein, Sandra Greene, Trevor Getz, and many others, whose work is also reflected in the attached references. In all our cases, we have depended on the documentation that we could find. The SHADD Biography Project proposes to combine all accessible source materials on individuals in one dataset so that we can take analysis to a new level that not only allows a continuation of the current pattern of focusing on individuals but also will allow comparisons and deeper analysis that can result from the ability to access larger bodies of data and with search capabilities that require unique analytical tools. Our proposal is to pool available datasets, which contain cases, testimonies, police reports, and other documents which have been collected, and in the context of graduate student research projects, ongoing projects of team members, and the solicitation of inputs from collaborating scholars who are not part of the application team, we hope to supplement our combined holdings. We want to create a resource that houses data so that we can better reconstruct the biographies of individuals whose histories are thought to have been lost, even denied and rejected, because of slavery. Our specific focus on those who were enslaved but were actually born free in Africa requires that we distinguish those from West Africa from those born in the Americas under slavery, a distinction that Lovejoy has suggested in revising the predominant theories of the “slave narrative” genre so ably described by Andrews, Gates, Carretta, and others and criticized by Lovejoy, among others. We contend that the literature on biography and slavery that has focused on “slave narratives,” that is texts written by individuals themselves and hence constitute autobiographies, has reached a false conclusion that the genre is almost entirely a North American creation. Our data include numerous autobiographical accounts that were written and sometimes published, not only in English but also in Hausa and Kanuri. The SHADD Project includes these autobiographical accounts, which Lovejoy has called “freedom narratives” to distinguish these accounts from the stories of those who were born in slavery in the Americas. In the case of many, if not most, of the accounts in our collective research trace people who were enslaved, but who had been born free, and who subsequently after a period of slavery were able to regain their freedom. In the case of the more than 100,000 so-called “Liberated Africans” who were taken off slave ships in Sierra Leone, this regained “freedom” involved a period of apprenticeship that produced considerable documentation. Hence the SHADD Project diverges from the usual emphasis of “slave narratives” that are autobiographical and extends the search to include biographical reconstructions, although with the important caveat that we base reconstructions on existing texts and testimonies. The SHADD Biogra phy Project complements existing database projects, such as TSTD2 (Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database) (www.slavevoyages.org); and Michigan State University’s Slave Biographies project (http://slavebiographies.org/project). The approach of the present proposal goes beyond these other database projects in two important respects; first the SHADD Project relies on text and where possible digitized copies of original documentation that can be searched; and second, the focus on West Africa as place of birth clearly establishes a demographic population whom we are calling Atlantic Africans. Methodology – The first stage of the SHADD Project requires common agreement among the team members on the necessity to transcribe all texts and text-based excerpts that pertain to individuals. Transcription allows full and easy search of data across sources. Individual testimonies are assembled on Google Drive, from where documents are transcribed into files on individuals. Once a transcription has been verified, both the transcription and the original text are uploaded onto the SHADD website, www.tubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD. Each individual text is prefaced by a short introduction summarizing the key points of the text, providing source information for the testimony, and establishing essential metadata to facilitate search capabilities. Moreover, other digitized materials with references to individuals can also be mined, with additional information added to folders. Each text is coded for approximately thirty basic variables, including name, gender, date of text, date of birth, place of birth, occupation, year of enslavement, and New World destination. These coding variables will make it easier for scholars and students to explore these valuable resources. Members of the Project are still collecting additional biographical information from archival repositories where new materials can be found. Our search for individuals who were born in West Africa has expanded to military records, fugitive slave advertisements, slave sales, legal records, and church documents that are proving enormously rewarding. Documents from which the SHADD Project will derive data sets also include those that were produced by crew members, ship doctors and merchants of slave trading ships during the period of the export slave trade across the Atlantic. These published and unpublished books, stories, reports, diaries and ship logs are mostly written in English, but with many in Dutch, French, Portuguese and Danish. They include major eye witness records and second hand renderings of auto/biographies and biographical information on enslaved people of all sexes that traders/travelers encountered during their journeys and trading to and from Africa. Explorer's accounts and reports, official and private, many published and others unpublished of several government expeditions into the interior of Africa constitute another category – many of the key ones cited in the references. These include encounters with slaves, slave holders, redeemed or manumitted ex-slaves and material from these, though not completely, have been collated by participating members of the SHADD project. These will be systematically pooled and searched for auto/biographical data. Generating data from more of these sources, including, from the non-English language portion is going to require assigning undergraduate research assistants to it. Missionary documents constitute a crucial category of data set source for the SHADD Project. The Methodist, CMS, AME and other missionaries who moved into Africa in the early 19th century, and some since the late 18th, including their numerous very important African helpers, produced a prodigious amount of reports, letters, diaries and journals in West Africa, perhaps more than half of which awaits transcription. As missionaries resided in their African posts for years and even decades, set after another set, their documents are rich sources for auto/biographies of enslaved and freed Africans. Their evangelistic missions in most instances were directly geared towards the marginal elements of the society, enslaved people being a significant portion of this number. Either as converts or prospective converts, visibly oppressed and victimized, the enslaved constituted a significant audience for missionaries, for whom the church and its agents became benefactors. Moreover, mission education was responsible for spreading literacy and the written word and thereby promoting autobiographies. On the whole, in fact, missionary records came to be written mostly by Africans; as Peel has noted, comprising a majority of CMS reports from Nigeria before 1880. The missionary documents produce rounded and more longitudinal documentation of individual slaves than other forms of documents previously discussed. Various members of the team have been transcribing missionary and other texts and now have large datasets with text. Kolapo, for example has worked with CMS missionary documents of the Upper Niger mission, led by Samuel Crowther. Missionary documents cover a period of over 40 years from c.1830-1870. Similarly, there were numerous expeditions into the interior of the upper Guinea coast from the 1790s onward that have left extensive biographical information. The Methodist, CMS, AME and other missionaries who moved into Africa in the late 18th and early 19th century describe their numerous and very important African helpers, many of whom wrote their own prodigious reports, letters, diaries and journals which are invaluable to this project. At present, perhaps half of which still awaits transcription /transliteration. These evangelical missions targeted the marginal elements of society, including enslaved individuals as a significant portion of this number. Whether prospective converts, converts, or visibly oppressed victims to which the church and its agents became benefactors, the enslaved were a significant audience of the missionaries. These documents include children named after missionary benefactors, reports of people redeemed from slavery, the records of the education of such children, and the employment of individuals at mission compounds. Part of the funding will be used to transfer data into a common format and dataset that is based on the material housed on the SHADD website and that will be mined from other databases into appropriate order conformable to a database which will be easily accessible to the scholarly community as well as this research team. Liberated African documentation is extensive in the National Archives in London, in Sierra Leone and in Brazil. Much of the materials from London and Sierra Leone is at the Tubman Institute and the University of Worcester, as well as in Sierra Leone. The Portuguese materials, particularly those from Arquivo Histórico do Itamaraty, Coleções especiais - Comissão Mista Brasil-Inglaterra Arquivo Nacional, Fundo da Junta do Comércio, Códices 184-188 - Cartas de Emancipação de Africanos Livres, Arquivo Publico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (APERJ). Fundo de Presidente de Província, Códice Diversos, Fundação Biblioteca Nacional (FBN), Seção Periódicos: Dário do Rio de Janeiro, Aurora Fluminense. Anúncios de fuga de Africanos Livres, are now available in digital form in Brazil and at the Tubman Institute. Project Time Line and Deliverables – The project time period is three years. The first year will be devoted to the integration of existing databases. This will require design of the common database, including the determination of fields of the database and the establishment of an umbrella cloud for the project. This stage of the project will require expert advice as well as the reflections of team members on their experiences to determine how best to restructure, supplement, and otherwise modify earlier work. Two working meetings will be required to enable close coordination of this stage of review and planning. The desire to link text and testimony with data means that previous databases will need to be tied to original documentation. This is where student assistance will be necessary and thereby will consciously involve both graduate and undergraduate students in training in transcription and creation of metadata to tie materials to the larger project. The first year will also identify gaps in the data that can be filled through further archival research, digitization of known materials that are not currently in the various databases of team members. In addition a dissemination and outreach programme will be launched, including expansion of existing websites, ongoing publications, participation in conferences and workshops. A working meeting of team members and involved graduate students will be held in Sierra Leone at the end of the first year of the grant. The second year will be devoted to revising the database, once specific upgrades are identified as necessary, and in order to supplement primary source material and to check original sources when necessary. A working meeting of team members and involved graduate students will be held at York. Specific gaps in data will be targeted through collaborative intervention. This will require research in archives that are identified as holding significant materials that have not yet been digitized or where materials have to be examined for possible inclusion. In several cases, graduate students will be involved in collecting targeted materials with extensive biographical information in the context of their thesis research. These include Dele Jemirade (York), who will be working on the police court records in Sierra Leone from the 1850s; Erika Delgado (Worcester), whose Ph.D. thesis will focus on school records in Sierra Leone from c. 1820-1850, Carlos da Silva (University of Hull, UK), whose Ph.D. thesis on the slave trade of the Bight of Benin. The third year will consolidate the project through the final integration of data from diverse sources, including new materials that have been located, digitized and transcribed. Additional digitizing of materials in conjunction with this project will be undertaken. A final team meeting will also allow the preparation of a report on the status of digitization and the possibilities of future additions. At this stage, a publication schedule, including a collective book by the team, will be confirmed. It is expected that by Year 3, there will be several Ph.D. theses and M.A. theses completed that are specifically tied to this project. Furthermore, the websites and online resources will be fully stabilized by Year 3. There will also be a continuation of the dissemination and outreach programme, including other publications, attendance at conferences and participations in workshops. Separate from this proposal, moreover, a conference will be organized in Year 3 to highlight the achievements of the SHADD Project. The core to the implementation of the SHADD Project is the four working meetings of the team, including graduate students. These meetings are intended to be face to face, first at York and then in Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro, and finally again at York. Of course, there will be other meetings via skype, and regular monitoring of work so that the collaboration is maximized. Why Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro? Because they are two of the most important locations of archives where primary source materials can be found and each location has its own peculiarities that require discussion in situ. The benefits in training for graduate students is obvious, since as appropriate students will be able to extend their stay in either Sierra Leone or Brazil to conduct research of benefit to their own Ph.D. theses and the aims of the Project. It is intended that an edited book will appear by the end of the third year of the project that will include various reports, preliminary papers, and documents that have emerged in the course of the Project. In addition, collective volume that focuses on major findings will be prepared for publication in the Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora, Africa World Press, of which Lovejoy is General Editor. It is anticipated that several articles and conference papers will be generated by team members and associated graduate students. The team has a strong track record in publishing research results through conference presentations and publication. It is also anticipated that two or three of the participants will be selected to write a book that is based on the Project. It is also proposed that a conference will be held after the completion of the Project, which will result in its own publications. The conference will address the issue of biography in the study of slavery. This forum will allow team members and their graduate students to present the results of the Project, as well as papers on particular aspects of the research. The graduate students associated with the Project will present papers. The importance of this endeavour is clear since it relates to the recovery of history and the documentation of the crime against humanity of slavery. Any review of the literature would include the members of this team as major contributors whose awareness of the theoretical implications of documenting life histories challenges the fields of history and literary criticism. We can show that the fashion of studying the “Black Atlantic” has ignored West Africa, but through a rigorous methodology of collection and analysis our team has amassed a wealth of new knowledge. Undergraduate and graduate students are fully integrated into this Project, which guarantees the quality of training and opportunity for mentoring in a meaningful way that will result in publications and the awarding of degrees. Moreover, the focus of the research on biography will undoubtedly be attractive to a wide audience, especially people of African descent in North America, and indeed elsewhere. The constitution of the research team guarantees the feasibility of the project, which is focused on four working meetings and the steady work of student research assistants throughout the life of the Project. The budget therefore focuses on two features: first the cost of mounting four working meetings; and second financial support for students who are involved in the Project. Additional costs in the budget relate to the operation of the Project. As demonstrated by the support from York University, the University of Worcester, and Vanderbilt University, existing resources will be used wherever possible. Clearly an atmosphere exists that is essential for the successful implementation of the Project. The preservation and presentation of data will be in accordance with the digital storage policies of the Tubman Institute. Our Project will contribute to the mobilization of new knowledge on the origins and development of the African diaspora and the impact on West Africa. We propose a publication and web-based programme of dissemination which is based on a solid track record of achievement. We have clearly identified phases for the Project, beginning with an initial working meeting at York University and including subsequent meetings in Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro before a final working meeting at York. We will develop web facilities that build on existing achievements. We have a plan for publication that can be guaranteed in the Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora of Africa World Press. Indeed it is the track record of the team members that should be considered foremost in determining whether or not this Project should be funded. Our collective publication record, ability to operate large grants, our experience in training and mentoring, and other achievements indicate that we will be able to implement a major project on the biographies of slaves from West Africa. Our methodological approach and theoretical framework are straight forward and easily comprehensible. The implications of the successful compilation of digitized repository for biographical data are considerable in terms of the potential for the discipline of history. Moreover, the Project is designed to allow for subsequent development, which can be expected.

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Apr   Year: 2014

    End Date:
      Month: Mar   Year: 2018

    Collaborator: Sean Kelley
    Collaborator Institution: University of Essex
    Collaborator Role: Co-applicant

    Funders:
    SSHRC
Perspectives on Historical and Contemporary Ransoming Practices

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Mar   Year: 2014

    End Date:
      Month: Aug   Year: 2015

    Collaborator: Jennifer Lofkrantz
    Collaborator Role: Co-applicant

    Funders:
    SSHRC
SHADD: Testimonies of Enslaved Africans from the Era of Slavery

    Summary:

    The SHADD Biography Project focuses on the enforced migration of “Atlantic Africans,” that is enslaved Africans in the Atlantic world during the era of the slave trade, through an examination of biographical accounts of individuals born in Africa who were enslaved in the 16-19th century. The focus is on testimony, the voices of individual Africans. The Project is named for Mary Ann Shadd, abolitionist, Canadian, first woman newspaper editor (Voice of the Fugitive) in North America, in recognition of her political and intellectual commitment to document the Underground Railroad and resistance to slavery in North America. SHADD also identifies the website Studies in the History of the African Diaspora---Documents (www.harriettubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD), which houses facsimile and transcribed versions of testimonies. The SHADD Biography Project seeks to use an online digital repository of autobiographical testimonies and biographical data of Atlantic Africans to analyze patterns in the slave trade from West Africa, specifically in terms of where individuals came from, why they were enslaved, and what happened to them. The Project focuses on people born in Africa and hence in most cases had been born free rather than on those who were born into slavery in the Americas. Our contribution will add specifically concentrate on those who experienced the “Middle Passage,” i.e., the Atlantic crossing, which is often seen as a defining moment in the slavery experience. The genre “slave narrative” is thereby expanded through a study of accounts of slaves born in Africa. The SHADD Project focuses on biographical testimony as the fundamental unit of analysis, whether text arises from first person memory or via amanuensis, and whenever possible is supplemented with biographical details culled from legal, ecclesiastical, and other types of records. The Project will integrate testimonies and other data from several projects. This includes the research of the co-applicants and collaborators, who want to integrate databases in a fashion that will be innovative and creative. Lovejoy brings a range of testimonies focusing on the Central Sudan but including Yoruba, Nupe and other West African cases; Lovejoy is currently working with co-applicant, Kolapo, and collaborators, Kelley and Akurang-Parry, in the generation of materials on West Africa, along with Schwarz. In addition, Lovejoy, Schwarz and Banting Fellow Bezerra are working on biographical information about individuals taken off slave ships by the British navy and designated "Liberated Africans," who can be followed in the documentary record. In collaboration with Co-applicant, Le Glaunec, and Collaborator, Landers, these West African and “Liberated African” data will be combined with data from the French Caribbean, including information from fugitive slave advertisements, and in the case of Spanish and Portuguese colonies, from baptismal and other documentation maintained by the Church. Our intention is to identify individuals in the several collections of documents that amount to massive amounts of material. Individual testimonies are assembled on Google Drive, from where documents are transcribed into files on individuals and then verified. Specific bodies of data will be the focus of PhD and MA research projects. The Project contributes to an understanding of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its impact on West Africa as gleaned from biographical accounts. Scholars in several disciplines other than history, including literature studies and sociology will benefit from the project, which also will interest individuals undertaking genealogical research.The SHADD website allows students, the scholarly community, and the general access to the extensive data in an interactive form.

    Description:

    SHADD Biography Project – Description Objectives – The SHADD Biography Project focuses on the autobiographical testimonies of Africans from the era of the slave trade. The challenge of the project is to demonstrate that the history of Africans in the era of the slave trade can be recovered, and that this history is essential in our understanding of the modern world and its multicultural diversity. Because of the stigma of slavery, the historical importance and influence of the African diaspora has been systematically and institutionally silenced and forgotten. The aim of the SHADD Biography Project is to break this chain of silence by assembling, making accessible, and analyzing biographical and autobiographical accounts of Africans from the era of the slave trade. Although the historical literature and the extent of scholarly attention have both assumed that accounts of Africans do not exist or are relatively few and insignificant in number, the SHADD project has already identified detailed accounts of several thousand individuals from the late 18th century through the 19th century. Moreover, the analysis of the records of the abolition suppression campaign of the first half of the 19th century allows a further study of approximately 100,000 individuals, many of whose biographies can be reconstructed. Our objective is to combine the materials assembled by members of the team into a common dataset based on individuals and their experiences and identities rather than abstract numbers that dominates the discussion at the present time. This wealth of material allows the possibility of examining the history of the period from the end of the sixteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century in considerable detail as revealed in life histories. The African migration of this period constituted more than 90 percent of all trans-Atlantic migration and hence was fundamental to the development of the Americas and the Atlantic world during this period. The issues that are raised relate to the silencing of this story. Why is it that the African origins of the modern world are treated the way they have been, with neglect, denial, and non-scientific prejudice, when simple logic expects a strong and powerful influence on the development of the modern world? An alternate perspective on the development of the modern world has been argued by Lovejoy and others, although without much noticeable effect on the scholarly literature. It is the challenge of this project to confront this neglect by assembling an overwhelming database of materials on individual life histories of as many as 200,000 people who were born in Africa, enslaved, and taken into slavery, often sent across the Atlantic or at least with that destination in mind. The project is designed to advance scholarly knowledge of trans-Atlantic migration and corresponding influences of that migration on western Africa and the Americas, and implicitly Europe. The contribution to knowledge potentially could affect the perspective on history in relation to the development of the Americas and the rise of western European global domination. The SHADD Biography Project, based at the Harriet Tubman Institute at York University in Toronto and collaborating with scholars at Vanderbilt University, the University of Worcester, Université de Sherbrooke, the University of Guelph, and Shippensburg University, seeks to establish an online digital repository of autobiographical testimonies and biographical data of Atlantic Africans during the era of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The SHADD Biography Project concentrates on the life stories of individuals who were born in Africa but were destined for the Atlantic world via slavery. These are the individuals whom we are identifying as “Atlantic Africans.” The Project is named for Mary Ann Shadd, abolitionist, Canadian, editor of Voice of the Fugitive and the first woman newspaper editor in North America, in recognition of her political and intellectual commitment to document the period of the Underground Railroad, resistance to slavery in North America, and the flight of African Americans into exile in Canada. SHADD also identifies the website of the Biography Project, SHADD: Studies in the History of the African Diaspora—Documents (www.harriettubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD), which is intended to house facsimile and transcribed versions of all testimonies. The SHADD Biography Project makes available material on the individuals who helped to form the African Diaspora. Specifically the SHADD Project focuses on men, women and children who were born in Africa and in most cases were born free and therefore can be distinguished from the enslaved people born in the Americas who were born into slavery. The significance of this distinction has been recognized in differentiating those often referred to as creole because they were born in the Americas from those who came from Africa. The focus of this project is on those who clearly came from Africa. In the analysis of slavery, it is recognized that being born in Africa affected how the enslaved were socialized and disciplined to the work regime, but most analysis fails to break through the facelessness of slavery, in which individual personality was erased through the rupture from homelands, the physical and sexual abuse of the Middle Passage, the change of names, and the incorporation into the household of the prison. The danger in analysing slavery is the loss of perspective, succumbing to empathy for the terror of being a slave, when in secret, private moments, we should postulate, the memory of home persisted and even helped sustain broken bodies and tortured minds. The aim of the project is to sift the vast bodies of historical documentation to recover the stories of what happened to people. The SHADD Project includes autobiographical testimony as the fundamental unit of text, whether given in the first person or via amanuensis; personal testimony is supplemented with biographical details culled from legal, ecclesiastical, and other types of records. The SHADD Project will integrate testimonies and other data from several projects. This includes the research of the co-applicants and collaborators, who want to integrate databases in a fashion that will be innovative and creative. Paul Lovejoy brings a range of testimonies focusing on the Central Sudan but including Yoruba, Nupe and other West African cases, including the biographies of Muslims in Brazil and particularly the 1835 uprising in Bahia; Lovejoy is currently working with Sean Kelley in the generation of materials on West Africa, along with Suzanne Schwarz. In addition, Lovejoy, Schwarz and Bezerra are working on biographical information about individuals taken off slave ships by the British navy and designated “Liberated Africans,” who can be followed in the documentary record. Co-applicant Femi Kolapo and Kwabena Akurang-Parry contribute biographical accounts from central Nigeria and southern Ghana, respectively. In collaboration with Co-applicant, Jean-Pierre Le Glaunec, and Collaborator, Jane Landers, these West African and Liberated African data will be combined with data from the French Caribbean, including information from fugitive slave advertisements, and in the case of Spanish and Portuguese colonies, from baptismal and other documentation maintained by the Church. Our intention is to identify individuals in the several collections of documents that amount to massive amounts of material. Testimonies will be assembled and transcribed. The project has expertise in areas of West Africa and the Americas and has access to a wealth of documentation that crosses the Atlantic. Context (including literature review and theoretical approach) – The study of the African past in both West Africa and in the Americas can be enhanced enormously through the analysis of primary texts that derive from individual life histories. The participants in this project are in the forefront of collecting text-based materials, both from published primary sources and from numerous archives in more than 20 countries. In our collective opinion, the study of West African history and the history of the African diaspora can take a giant step forward through the proposed SHADD Biography Project. Each member of the team has made essential and substantial contributions to the collection of biographical data and to its analysis through their publications, as reflected in each c.v. and the list of references. The nature of our individual contributions has usually been episodic, following one or a few individuals and trying to reconstruct life histories in specific contexts. Indeed, we are not the only ones that have contextualized biography as individual case studies. Other excellent work can attributed to James Sweet, Walter Hawthorne, Martin Klein, Sandra Greene, Trevor Getz, and many others, whose work is also reflected in the attached references. In all our cases, we have depended on the documentation that we could find. The SHADD Biography Project proposes to combine all accessible source materials on individuals in one dataset so that we can take analysis to a new level that not only allows a continuation of the current pattern of focusing on individuals but also will allow comparisons and deeper analysis that can result from the ability to access larger bodies of data and with search capabilities that require unique analytical tools. Our proposal is to pool available datasets, which contain cases, testimonies, police reports, and other documents which have been collected, and in the context of graduate student research projects, ongoing projects of team members, and the solicitation of inputs from collaborating scholars who are not part of the application team, we hope to supplement our combined holdings. We want to create a resource that houses data so that we can better reconstruct the biographies of individuals whose histories are thought to have been lost, even denied and rejected, because of slavery. Our specific focus on those who were enslaved but were actually born free in Africa requires that we distinguish those from West Africa from those born in the Americas under slavery, a distinction that Lovejoy has suggested in revising the predominant theories of the “slave narrative” genre so ably described by Andrews, Gates, Carretta, and others and criticized by Lovejoy, among others. We contend that the literature on biography and slavery that has focused on “slave narratives,” that is texts written by individuals themselves and hence constitute autobiographies, has reached a false conclusion that the genre is almost entirely a North American creation. Our data include numerous autobiographical accounts that were written and sometimes published, not only in English but also in Hausa and Kanuri. The SHADD Project includes these autobiographical accounts, which Lovejoy has called “freedom narratives” to distinguish these accounts from the stories of those who were born in slavery in the Americas. In the case of many, if not most, of the accounts in our collective research trace people who were enslaved, but who had been born free, and who subsequently after a period of slavery were able to regain their freedom. In the case of the more than 100,000 so-called “Liberated Africans” who were taken off slave ships in Sierra Leone, this regained “freedom” involved a period of apprenticeship that produced considerable documentation. Hence the SHADD Project diverges from the usual emphasis of “slave narratives” that are autobiographical and extends the search to include biographical reconstructions, although with the important caveat that we base reconstructions on existing texts and testimonies. The SHADD Biogra phy Project complements existing database projects, such as TSTD2 (Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database) (www.slavevoyages.org); and Michigan State University’s Slave Biographies project (http://slavebiographies.org/project). The approach of the present proposal goes beyond these other database projects in two important respects; first the SHADD Project relies on text and where possible digitized copies of original documentation that can be searched; and second, the focus on West Africa as place of birth clearly establishes a demographic population whom we are calling Atlantic Africans. Methodology – The first stage of the SHADD Project requires common agreement among the team members on the necessity to transcribe all texts and text-based excerpts that pertain to individuals. Transcription allows full and easy search of data across sources. Individual testimonies are assembled on Google Drive, from where documents are transcribed into files on individuals. Once a transcription has been verified, both the transcription and the original text are uploaded onto the SHADD website, www.tubmaninstitute.ca/SHADD. Each individual text is prefaced by a short introduction summarizing the key points of the text, providing source information for the testimony, and establishing essential metadata to facilitate search capabilities. Moreover, other digitized materials with references to individuals can also be mined, with additional information added to folders. Each text is coded for approximately thirty basic variables, including name, gender, date of text, date of birth, place of birth, occupation, year of enslavement, and New World destination. These coding variables will make it easier for scholars and students to explore these valuable resources. Members of the Project are still collecting additional biographical information from archival repositories where new materials can be found. Our search for individuals who were born in West Africa has expanded to military records, fugitive slave advertisements, slave sales, legal records, and church documents that are proving enormously rewarding. Documents from which the SHADD Project will derive data sets also include those that were produced by crew members, ship doctors and merchants of slave trading ships during the period of the export slave trade across the Atlantic. These published and unpublished books, stories, reports, diaries and ship logs are mostly written in English, but with many in Dutch, French, Portuguese and Danish. They include major eye witness records and second hand renderings of auto/biographies and biographical information on enslaved people of all sexes that traders/travelers encountered during their journeys and trading to and from Africa. Explorer's accounts and reports, official and private, many published and others unpublished of several government expeditions into the interior of Africa constitute another category – many of the key ones cited in the references. These include encounters with slaves, slave holders, redeemed or manumitted ex-slaves and material from these, though not completely, have been collated by participating members of the SHADD project. These will be systematically pooled and searched for auto/biographical data. Generating data from more of these sources, including, from the non-English language portion is going to require assigning undergraduate research assistants to it. Missionary documents constitute a crucial category of data set source for the SHADD Project. The Methodist, CMS, AME and other missionaries who moved into Africa in the early 19th century, and some since the late 18th, including their numerous very important African helpers, produced a prodigious amount of reports, letters, diaries and journals in West Africa, perhaps more than half of which awaits transcription. As missionaries resided in their African posts for years and even decades, set after another set, their documents are rich sources for auto/biographies of enslaved and freed Africans. Their evangelistic missions in most instances were directly geared towards the marginal elements of the society, enslaved people being a significant portion of this number. Either as converts or prospective converts, visibly oppressed and victimized, the enslaved constituted a significant audience for missionaries, for whom the church and its agents became benefactors. Moreover, mission education was responsible for spreading literacy and the written word and thereby promoting autobiographies. On the whole, in fact, missionary records came to be written mostly by Africans; as Peel has noted, comprising a majority of CMS reports from Nigeria before 1880. The missionary documents produce rounded and more longitudinal documentation of individual slaves than other forms of documents previously discussed. Various members of the team have been transcribing missionary and other texts and now have large datasets with text. Kolapo, for example has worked with CMS missionary documents of the Upper Niger mission, led by Samuel Crowther. Missionary documents cover a period of over 40 years from c.1830-1870. Similarly, there were numerous expeditions into the interior of the upper Guinea coast from the 1790s onward that have left extensive biographical information. The Methodist, CMS, AME and other missionaries who moved into Africa in the late 18th and early 19th century describe their numerous and very important African helpers, many of whom wrote their own prodigious reports, letters, diaries and journals which are invaluable to this project. At present, perhaps half of which still awaits transcription /transliteration. These evangelical missions targeted the marginal elements of society, including enslaved individuals as a significant portion of this number. Whether prospective converts, converts, or visibly oppressed victims to which the church and its agents became benefactors, the enslaved were a significant audience of the missionaries. These documents include children named after missionary benefactors, reports of people redeemed from slavery, the records of the education of such children, and the employment of individuals at mission compounds. Part of the funding will be used to transfer data into a common format and dataset that is based on the material housed on the SHADD website and that will be mined from other databases into appropriate order conformable to a database which will be easily accessible to the scholarly community as well as this research team. Liberated African documentation is extensive in the National Archives in London, in Sierra Leone and in Brazil. Much of the materials from London and Sierra Leone is at the Tubman Institute and the University of Worcester, as well as in Sierra Leone. The Portuguese materials, particularly those from Arquivo Histórico do Itamaraty, Coleções especiais - Comissão Mista Brasil-Inglaterra Arquivo Nacional, Fundo da Junta do Comércio, Códices 184-188 - Cartas de Emancipação de Africanos Livres, Arquivo Publico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (APERJ). Fundo de Presidente de Província, Códice Diversos, Fundação Biblioteca Nacional (FBN), Seção Periódicos: Dário do Rio de Janeiro, Aurora Fluminense. Anúncios de fuga de Africanos Livres, are now available in digital form in Brazil and at the Tubman Institute. Project Time Line and Deliverables – The project time period is three years. The first year will be devoted to the integration of existing databases. This will require design of the common database, including the determination of fields of the database and the establishment of an umbrella cloud for the project. This stage of the project will require expert advice as well as the reflections of team members on their experiences to determine how best to restructure, supplement, and otherwise modify earlier work. Two working meetings will be required to enable close coordination of this stage of review and planning. The desire to link text and testimony with data means that previous databases will need to be tied to original documentation. This is where student assistance will be necessary and thereby will consciously involve both graduate and undergraduate students in training in transcription and creation of metadata to tie materials to the larger project. The first year will also identify gaps in the data that can be filled through further archival research, digitization of known materials that are not currently in the various databases of team members. In addition a dissemination and outreach programme will be launched, including expansion of existing websites, ongoing publications, participation in conferences and workshops. A working meeting of team members and involved graduate students will be held in Sierra Leone at the end of the first year of the grant. The second year will be devoted to revising the database, once specific upgrades are identified as necessary, and in order to supplement primary source material and to check original sources when necessary. A working meeting of team members and involved graduate students will be held at York. Specific gaps in data will be targeted through collaborative intervention. This will require research in archives that are identified as holding significant materials that have not yet been digitized or where materials have to be examined for possible inclusion. In several cases, graduate students will be involved in collecting targeted materials with extensive biographical information in the context of their thesis research. These include Dele Jemirade (York), who will be working on the police court records in Sierra Leone from the 1850s; Erika Delgado (Worcester), whose Ph.D. thesis will focus on school records in Sierra Leone from c. 1820-1850, Carlos da Silva (University of Hull, UK), whose Ph.D. thesis on the slave trade of the Bight of Benin. The third year will consolidate the project through the final integration of data from diverse sources, including new materials that have been located, digitized and transcribed. Additional digitizing of materials in conjunction with this project will be undertaken. A final team meeting will also allow the preparation of a report on the status of digitization and the possibilities of future additions. At this stage, a publication schedule, including a collective book by the team, will be confirmed. It is expected that by Year 3, there will be several Ph.D. theses and M.A. theses completed that are specifically tied to this project. Furthermore, the websites and online resources will be fully stabilized by Year 3. There will also be a continuation of the dissemination and outreach programme, including other publications, attendance at conferences and participations in workshops. Separate from this proposal, moreover, a conference will be organized in Year 3 to highlight the achievements of the SHADD Project. The core to the implementation of the SHADD Project is the four working meetings of the team, including graduate students. These meetings are intended to be face to face, first at York and then in Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro, and finally again at York. Of course, there will be other meetings via skype, and regular monitoring of work so that the collaboration is maximized. Why Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro? Because they are two of the most important locations of archives where primary source materials can be found and each location has its own peculiarities that require discussion in situ. The benefits in training for graduate students is obvious, since as appropriate students will be able to extend their stay in either Sierra Leone or Brazil to conduct research of benefit to their own Ph.D. theses and the aims of the Project. It is intended that an edited book will appear by the end of the third year of the project that will include various reports, preliminary papers, and documents that have emerged in the course of the Project. In addition, collective volume that focuses on major findings will be prepared for publication in the Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora, Africa World Press, of which Lovejoy is General Editor. It is anticipated that several articles and conference papers will be generated by team members and associated graduate students. The team has a strong track record in publishing research results through conference presentations and publication. It is also anticipated that two or three of the participants will be selected to write a book that is based on the Project. It is also proposed that a conference will be held after the completion of the Project, which will result in its own publications. The conference will address the issue of biography in the study of slavery. This forum will allow team members and their graduate students to present the results of the Project, as well as papers on particular aspects of the research. The graduate students associated with the Project will present papers. The importance of this endeavour is clear since it relates to the recovery of history and the documentation of the crime against humanity of slavery. Any review of the literature would include the members of this team as major contributors whose awareness of the theoretical implications of documenting life histories challenges the fields of history and literary criticism. We can show that the fashion of studying the “Black Atlantic” has ignored West Africa, but through a rigorous methodology of collection and analysis our team has amassed a wealth of new knowledge. Undergraduate and graduate students are fully integrated into this Project, which guarantees the quality of training and opportunity for mentoring in a meaningful way that will result in publications and the awarding of degrees. Moreover, the focus of the research on biography will undoubtedly be attractive to a wide audience, especially people of African descent in North America, and indeed elsewhere. The constitution of the research team guarantees the feasibility of the project, which is focused on four working meetings and the steady work of student research assistants throughout the life of the Project. The budget therefore focuses on two features: first the cost of mounting four working meetings; and second financial support for students who are involved in the Project. Additional costs in the budget relate to the operation of the Project. As demonstrated by the support from York University, the University of Worcester, and Vanderbilt University, existing resources will be used wherever possible. Clearly an atmosphere exists that is essential for the successful implementation of the Project. The preservation and presentation of data will be in accordance with the digital storage policies of the Tubman Institute. Our Project will contribute to the mobilization of new knowledge on the origins and development of the African diaspora and the impact on West Africa. We propose a publication and web-based programme of dissemination which is based on a solid track record of achievement. We have clearly identified phases for the Project, beginning with an initial working meeting at York University and including subsequent meetings in Sierra Leone and Rio de Janeiro before a final working meeting at York. We will develop web facilities that build on existing achievements. We have a plan for publication that can be guaranteed in the Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora of Africa World Press. Indeed it is the track record of the team members that should be considered foremost in determining whether or not this Project should be funded. Our collective publication record, ability to operate large grants, our experience in training and mentoring, and other achievements indicate that we will be able to implement a major project on the biographies of slaves from West Africa. Our methodological approach and theoretical framework are straight forward and easily comprehensible. The implications of the successful compilation of digitized repository for biographical data are considerable in terms of the potential for the discipline of history. Moreover, the Project is designed to allow for subsequent development, which can be expected.

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Funders:
    SSHRC

All Publications


Book Chapters

Publication
Year

2015 "Mode de production des sociétés esclavagistes," Repenser l'anthropologie aujourd'hui avec Emmanuel Terray: Colloque international (Paris: CNRS), 13 pp.

2015

2013 “Transformation of the Ékpè Masquerade in the African Diaspora,” in Christopher Innes, Annabel Rutherford and Brigitte Bogar, eds., Carnival: Theory and Practice (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press), 127-52

2013

2013 “Pawnship and Seizure for Debt in the Process of Enslavement in West Africa,” in in Gwyn Campbell and Alessandro Stanziani, eds., Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds (London: Pickering and Chatto), 63-76

2013

2013 “The Land Question in Early Colonial Northern Nigeria,” in Ojong Echum Tangban and Chukwuma C.C. Osakwe, eds., Perspectives in African Historical Studies: Essays in Honour of Prof. Chinedu Nwafor Ubah (Kaduna: Nigerian Defence Academy), 667-88

2013

2011 “The Autobiography of Oluadah Equiano, the African, and the Life of Gustavus Vassa, Reconsidered,” in Ana Lucia Araujo, Mariana Pinho Cândido and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., Crossing Memories in the African Diaspora (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press), 15-34

2011

2010 "Commerce and Credit in Katsina in the Nineteenth Century," in Emily Brownell and Toyin Falola, eds., Africa, Empire and Globalization: Essays In Honor of A.G. Hopkins (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press) (with Yacine Daddi Addoun)

2010

2010 “The Slave Ports of the Bight of Biafra in the Eighteenth Century,” in Carolyn Brown and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., Repercussions of the Atlantic Slave Trade: The Interior of the Bight of Biafra and the African Diaspora (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press) (with David Richardson)

2010

2009 “Gustavus Vassa, Africano quien trató de humanizar la esclavización en la Costa de Mosquitos, 1775-1780,” in Jaime Arocha, ed., Nina S. de Friedemann, cronista de disidencias y resistencias (Bogota, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, 2009), 205-31

2009

2009 “Scarification and the Loss of History in the African Diaspora,” in Andrew Apter and Lauren Derry, eds., Activating the Past Historical Memory in the Black Atlantic (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholarly Publishing)

2009

2009 “The African Background of Venture Smith,” in James B. Stewart, ed., Venture Smith and the Business of Slavery and Freedom (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press)

2009

2009 “The Autobiography of Oluadah Equiano, the African, and the Life of Gustavus Vassa, Reconsidered,” in Ana Lucia Araujo, Mariana Pinho Cândido and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., Crossing Memories in the African Diaspora (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press)

2009

2009 “The Memorialisation of Slavery and the Slave Trade in Freedom Narratives,” in Swithin R. Wilmot, ed., Freedom: Retrospective and Perspective (Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers), 16-31

2009

2009 “The Slave Trade as Enforced Migration in the Central Sudan,” in Claudia Haake and Richard Bessel, eds., Removing Peoples: Forced Removal in the Modern World (London: German Historical Institute, 2008), Chapter 7

2009

2008 “Las ambiciones imperiales británicas en la Costa de la Mosquitia y la abolición de la esclavitud indígena, 1773-1781,” in Rina Cáceres and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds. Haití – Revolución y emancipación (San José: Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica)

2008

2008 “Los niños de Atlántico,” in Rina Cáceres Gómez, ed., Del olvido a la memoria: África en tiempos de la esclavitud (San José: UNESCO, 2008), 47-54

2008

2008 “Narratives of Trans-Atlantic Slavery: The Lives of Two Muslims, Muhammad Kab? Saghanaghu and Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua,” in Naana Opoku-Agyemang, Paul E. Lovejoy, and David Trotman, eds), Africa and Trans-Atlantic Memories: Literary and Aesthetic Manifestations of Diaspora and History (Trenton NJ: Africa World Press).

2008

2008 “Resistencia y rebellion en Río Tinto,” in Rina Cáceres Gómez, ed., Del olvido a la memoria: Esclavitud, resitencia y cultura (San José: UNESCO, 2008), 17-22

2008

2008 “Transatlantic Transformations: The Origins and Identities of Africans in the Americas,” in Boubacar Barry, Livio Sansone, and Elisée Soumonni, eds., Africa, Brazil, and the Construction of Trans-Atlantic Black Identities (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press)

2008

2007 “African Agency and the Liverpool Slave Trade,” in Suzannah Schwartz and David Richardson, eds., Liverpool and Transatlantic Slavery (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, with David Richardson)

2007

2007 “Alhaji Ahmad el-Fellati ibn Dauda ibn Muhammad Manga: Personal Malam to Emir Muhammad Bello of Kano,” in Femi J. Kolapo and Kwabena Akurang-Parry, eds., African Agency and European Colonialism: Latitudes of Negotiations and Containment:Essays in Honour of Sydney Kanya-Forstner

2007

2007 “Civilian Casualties in the Context of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” in John Laband, ed., Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Africa: From Slavery Days to Rwandan Genocide (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press), 17-50

2007

2007 “Internal Markets or an Atlantic-Sahara Divide? How Women Fit into the Slave Trade of West Africa,” in Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller (eds.), Women and Slavery (Athens: Ohio University Press)

2007

2007 “O Fator Iorubá no Tráfico Transatlântico de Escravos,” in Mariza de Carvalho Soares (organizadora), Rotas Atlânticas da Diáspora Africana: os 'Pretos Minas' no Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII-XX (Rio de Janeiro)

2007

2007 “Slavery, the Slave Trade and African Society,” in Douglas Hamilton and Robert J. Blyth, eds., Representing Slavery: Art, Artefacts and Archives in the Collections of the National Maritime Museum (London: Ashgate, 2007), 28-39

2007

2007 “The Arabic Manuscript of Muhammad Kaba Saghanughu of Jamaica, c. 1820,” in Annie Paul, ed., Creole Concerns: Essays in Honour of Kamau Brathwaite (Kingston: University of the West Indies Press) (with Yacine Daddi Addoun)

2007

2006 “Biographies of Enslaved Muslims from the Central Sudan in the Nineteenth Century,” in H. Bobboyi and A.M. Yakubu, eds., The Sokoto Caliphate: History and Legacies, 1804-2004 (Kaduna: Arewa House, 2006), vol. 1, 187-216

2006

2006 “Identity and the Mirage of Ethnicity: Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua’s Journey in the Americas,” in Jay B. Haviser and Kevin C. MacDonald, eds., African Re-Genesis: Confronting Social Issues in the Diaspora (London: Cavendish Publishing), 90-105

2006

2006 “The Context of Enslavement in West Africa: Ahmad B?b? and the Ethics of Slavery,” in Jane Landers (ed.), Slaves, Subjects, and Subversives: Blacks in Colonial Latin America (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press), 9-38

2006

2005 “The Yoruba Factor in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” in Matt Childs and Toyin Falola (eds.), The Yoruba Diaspora in the Atlantic World (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), 40-55

2005

2005 “Trans-Atlantic Transformations: The Origins and Identities of Africans in the Americas,” in Willem Wubbo Klooster and Alfred Padula (eds.), The Atlantic World: Essays on Slavery, Migration, and Imagination (New York: Prentice-Hall), 126-46

2005

2004 “Community of Believers: Trinidad Muslims and the Return to Africa, c. 1810-1850,” in Paul E. Lovejoy (ed.), Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam (Princeton: Markus Wiener, Publisher), 221-34 (with David Trotman)

2004

2004 “Muhammad K?b? Saghanughu and the Muslim Community of Jamaica,” in Paul E. Lovejoy (ed.), Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam (Princeton: Markus Wiener, Publisher), 201-20 (with Yacine Daddi Addoun)

2004

2004 “Muslim Freedmen in the Atlantic World: Images of Manumission and Self-Redemption,” in Paul E. Lovejoy (ed.), Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam (Princeton: Markus Wiener, Publisher), 235-64

2004

2004 “Slavery, the Bil?d al-Sudan and the Frontiers of the African Diaspora,” in Paul E. Lovejoy (ed.), Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam (Princeton: Markus Wiener, Publisher), 1-30

2004

2004 “Slaves to Palm Oil: Afro-European Commercial Relations in the Bight of Biafra, 1741-1841,” in David Killingray, Margarette Lincoln, and Nigel Rigby (eds.), Maritime Empires (London: Boydell & Brewer) (with David Richardson)

2004

2003 “A Escravidão no Califado de Socoto," in Manolo Florentino and Cicilda Machado (eds.), Ensaios sobre a escravidão (Belo Horizonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais), 37-64

2003

2003 “Anglo-Efik Relations and Protection against Illegal Enslavement at Old Calabar 1740-1807,” in Sylviane Diouf (ed.), Fighting the Slave Trade: West African Strategies (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), 101-20 (with David Richardson)

2003

2003 “Ethnic Designations of the Slave Trade and the Reconstruction of the History of Trans-Atlantic Slavery,” in Paul E. Lovejoy and David Trotman (eds.) Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of the Ethnicity in the African Diaspora (London: Continuum)

2003

2003 “Ethnicity and the African Diaspora,” in Paul E. Lovejoy and David Trotman (eds.) Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of the Ethnicity in the African Diaspora (London: Continuum) (with David Trotman)

2003

2003 “International Trade in West Africa in the Nineteenth Century: Salaga and Kano as ‘Ports of Trade’,” in Toyin Falola (ed.), Ghana in Africa and the World. Essays in Honor of Adu Boahen (Trenton NJ: Africa World Press), 477-512

2003

2003 “The Black Atlantic in the Construction of the ‘Western’ World: Alternative Approaches to the ‘Europeanization’ of the Americas,” in Dirk Hoerder, Christiane Harzig and Adrian Shubert (eds.), Diversity in History: Transcultural Interactions from the Early Modern Mediterranean World to the Twentieth-Century Postcolonial World (New York: Berghahn Books), 109-33

2003

2003 “Trans-Atlantic Transformations: The Origins and Identities of Africans in the Americas,” Palaver: Africa e alter terre, 1, 85-114

2003

2002 “Enslaved Africans and their Expectations of Slave Life in the Americas: Towards a Reconsideration of Models of ‘Creolisaton’,” in Verene A. Shepherd and Glen L. Richards (eds.), Questioning Creole: Creolisaton Discourses in Caribbean Culture (Kingston: Ian Randal, Publishers), 67-91

2002

2002 “Methodology through the Ethnic Lens: The Study of Atlantic Africa,” in Toyin Falola and Christian Jennings (eds.), African Historical Research: Sources and Methods (Rochester: University of Rochester Press)

2002

2002 “Nueces de Cola en Cartagena: Intercambios Transatlánticos en el siglo XVII,” in Claudia Mosquera, Mauricio Pardo and Odile Hoffmann (eds.) Afrodescendientes en las América: Trayectorias socials e identitarias (Bogota: Universidad Nacional Colombia), 195-212 (with Renée Soulodre-La France)

2002

2001 “Experiencias de vida y exectativas: Nociones Africanas sobre la esclavitud y la realidad en América,” in Rina Cáceres (ed.), Rutas de la Esclavitud en África y América Latina (San José: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica), 379-404 (with David Trotman)

2001

2001 “Letters of the Old Calabar Slave Trade, 1760-89” in Vincent Carretta and Philip Gould (eds.), Genius in Bondage: Literatures of the Early Black Atlantic (Louisville, University of Kentucky Press) (with David Richardson), 89-115

2001

2000 “Identifying Enslaved Africans in the African Diaspora,” in Lovejoy (ed.), Identity in the Shadow of Slavery (London: Cassell Academic)

2000

2000 “The Clapperton-Bello Exchange: the Sokoto Jihad and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1804-1837,” in Christopher Wise (ed.), The Desert Shore: Literatures of the African Sahel (Boulder: Lynne Rienner), 201-28

2000

1999 "Slave-Trading Ports: Toward an Atlantic-Wide Perspective,” in Robin Law and Silke Strickrodt (eds.), Ports of the Slave Trade (Bights of Benin and Biafra) (Stirling: Centre of Commonwealth Studies, University of Stirling), 12-34 (with David Eltis and David Richardson)

1999

1997 "Biography as Source Material: Towards a Biographical Archive of Enslaved Africans," in Robin Law (ed.), Source Material for Studying the Slave Trade and the African Diaspora (Centre of Commonwealth Studies, University of Stirling), 119-140.

1997

1997 "Cross-Border Migration and Political Instability," in Antonio R. Magalhaes(ed.), Sustainable Development: Implications for World Peace (Austin, University of Texas Press), 41-46; Discussion, 47-57.

1997

1997 "The Changing Dimensions of African History: Reappropriating the Diaspora," (with Robin Law), in Simon McGrath, Charles Jedrej, Kenneth King, and Jack Thompson (eds.), Rethinking African History (Edinburgh, Centre of African Studies), 181-200.

1997

1997 "The Condition of Slaves in the Americas," in From the Slave Trade to the Challenge of Development: Reflections on the Conditions for a Lasting Peace (Paris: UNESCO).

1997

1997 "`Pawns Will Live When Slaves is Apt to Dye': Credit, Slaving and Pawnship at Old Calabar in the Era of the Slave Trade," LSE Working Papers in Economic History (London, London School of Economics and Political Science) (with David Richardson).

1997

1995 "Afterward" in Jordan Goodman, Paul E. Lovejoy, and Andrew Sherratt, eds., Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology (London: Routledge) (with Jordan Goodman), 229-34.

1995

1995 "The Initial `Crisis of Adaptation': The Impact of British Abolition on the Atlantic Slave Trade in West Africa, 1808-20", in Robin Law, ed., From Slave Trade to `Legitimate' Commerce: The Commercial Transition in Nineteenth-Century West Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) (with David Richardson), 32-56.

1995

1995 "The `Coffee' of the Sudan: Consumption of Kola Nuts in the Sokoto Caliphate in the Nineteenth Century," in Jordan Goodman, Paul E. Lovejoy, and Andrew Sherratt, eds., Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology (London, Routledge), 103-25.

1995

1994 "Pawnship in Africa: Debt Bondage in Historical Perspective," in Toyin Falola and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., Pawnship in Africa: Debt Bondage in Historical Perspective (Boulder, Westview Press) (with Toyin Falola), 1-26.

1994

1994 "The Central Sudan and the Atlantic Slave Trade," in Robert W. Harms, Joseph C. Miller, David C. Newbury, and Michelle D. Wagner, Paths to the Past: African Historical Essays in Honor of Jan Vansina (Atlanta: African Studies Association Press), 345-70.

1994

1992 "Historical Setting," in Helen Metz, ed., Nigeria: A Country Study. Library of Congress, Area Handbook Series, Washington, D.C., 1-83.

1992

1992 "Keeping Slaves in Place. The Secret Debate on the Slavery Question in Northern Nigeria, 1900-1904," in Stanley Engerman and J.E. Inikori, eds., The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press), 49-75 (with J.S. Hogendorn).

1992

1992 "The Ibadan School of History," in Toyin Falola, ed., African Historiography. Essays in Honour of J.F. Ade Ajayi (Lagos and London: Longman).

1992

1989 "Commerce," in Pierre Bonte and Michel Izard, eds., Dictionnaire de l'ethnologie et de l'anthropologie (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France)

1989

1988 "The Reform of Slavery in Early Colonial Northern Nigeria," in S. Miers and R. Roberts, ed., The End of Slavery in Africa (Madison, University of Wisconsin Press), with J.S. Hogendorn, 391-414

1988

1986 "Fugitive Slaves: Resistance to Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate," in Gary Okihiro and Herbert Aptheker, eds., Resistance Not Acquiesence: Studies in African, Afro American and Caribbean History (Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press), 71-95.

1986

1986 "Problems of Slave Control in the Sokoto Caliphate," in Paul E. Lovejoy, ed., Africans in Bondage. Studies in Slavery and the Slave Trade (Madison, African Studies Program), 235-272.

1986

1985 "Merchants, Porters, and Teamsters in the Nineteenth Century Central Sudan," in Catherine Coquery Vidrovitch and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., The Workers of African Trade (Beverly Hills, Sage Publications), with M. B. Duffill, 137-167.

1985

1985 "The Ibadan School and Its Critics," in Bogumil Jewseiwicki and David Newbury, eds., Which History for Which Africans? (Beverly Hills, Sage Publications)

1985

1985 "The Internal Trade of West Africa, 1450 1800," in J. F. A. Ajayi and Michael Crowder, eds., History of West Africa (London, Longman Group Ltd.), vol. I, rev. ed.

1985

1985 "The Volume of the Central Sudan Salt Trade," in G. Liesegang, A. Pasch, A. Jones, eds., Figuring African Trade (Berlin: Reimar).

1985

1985 "The Workers of Trade in Precolonial Africa," in Catherine Coquery Vidrovitch and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds., The Workers of African Trade (Beverly Hills, Sage Publications), with Catherine Coquery Vidrovitch, 9-24.

1985

1981 "Slavery in the Context of Ideology," in Paul E. Lovejoy, ed., The Ideology of Slavery in Africa (Beverly Hills, Sage Publications), 11-38.

1981

1981 "Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate," in Paul E. Lovejoy, ed., The Ideology of Slavery in Africa (Beverly Hills, Sage Publications), 200-243.

1981

1979 "Slave Marketing in West Africa," in H. Gemery and J. S. Hogendorn, eds., The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade (New York, Academic Press), 213-35 (with J. S. Hogendorn).

1979

1979 "Slavery in West Africa," in H. Gemery and J. S. Hogendorn, eds., The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade (New York, Academic Press), 181-212 (with M. Klein).

1979

1977 "The Tuareg of the Central Sudan: Gradations in Servility at the Desert Edge (Niger and Nigeria)," in S. Miers and I. Kopytoff, eds., Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives (Madison, University of Wisconsin Press), 391-411 (with S. Baier).

1977

Books

Publication
Year

2014 Slavery, Abolition and the Transition to Colonialism in Sierra Leone. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press (co-edited with Suzanne Schwarz)

2014

2013 The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Slavery: New Directions in Teaching and Learning. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press (co-edited with Benjamin Bowser)

2013

2011 H.H. Johnston’s “The History of a Slave” (1889). Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener (edited)

2011

2011 Transformations in Slavery. A History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 3rd revised edition

2011

2011 Crossing Memories: Slavery and African Diaspora. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (co-edited with Ana Lucia Araujo and Mariana Pinho Cândido)

2011

2010 Repercussions of the Atlantic Slave Trade: The Interior of the Bight of Biafra and the African Diaspora. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (co-edited with Carolyn Brown)

2010

2009 Slavery, Islam and Diaspora. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (co-edited with Behnaz Asl Mirzai and Ismael Musah Montana)

2009

2008 Africa and Trans-Atlantic Memories: Literary and Aesthetic Manifestations of Diaspora and History. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (co-edited with Naana Opoku-Agyemang, and David Trotman)

2008

2008 Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology, London, Routledge, 2nd ed. (co-edited with Jordan Goodman and Andrew Sherratt)

2008

2008 Haití – Revolución y emancipación. San José, Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica (co-edited with Rina Cáceres)

2008

2007 The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America (Princeton: Markus Wiener Publisher, 2nd rev ed.) (co-edited and introduction, with Robin Law)

2007

2005 Ecology and Ethnography of Muslim Trade in West Africa. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora

2005

2005 Hugh Clapperton into the Interior of Africa: Records of the Second Expedition 1825-1827. Leiden, Brill (co-edited with Jamie Bruce Lockhart)

2005

2005 Slavery, Commerce and Production in West Africa: Slave Society in the Sokoto Caliphate. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora

2005

2005 Under the North Star: Black Communities in Upper Canada before Confederation (1867) , by Donald Simpson. New Brunswick NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (edited)

2005

2004 Enslaving Connections: Changing Cultures of Africa and Brazil during the Era of Slavery. Amherst NY: Humanity Books (co-edited with José C. Curto)

2004

2004 Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam. Princeton, Markus Wiener Publisher (edited)

2004

2003 Busah's Mistress, Or Catherine the Fugitive. A Romance Set in the Days of Slavery, by Cyrus Francis Perkins (Brantford, Ontario, 1855). Kingston, Jamaica, Ian Randle, Publisher (co-edited and introduction, with Verene Shepherd and David Trotman)

2003

2003 Pawnship, Slavery and Colonialism in Africa. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press, The Harriet Tubman Series on the African Diaspora (co-edited with Toyin Falola)

2003

2003 The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History, editor in chief, Joel Mokyr. New York, Oxford University Press, 5 vols. (co-editor)

2003

2003 The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History , editor in chief, Joel Mokyr. New York, Oxford University Press, 5 vols. (co-editor)

2003

2003 Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of Ethnicity in the African Diaspora. London, Continuum, Black Atlantic Series (co-edited with David Trotman)

2003

2002 A escravidão na África. Uma história de suas transformações. Rio de Janeiro, Civilização Brasileira (trad: Regina A.R.F. Bhering and Luiz Guilherme B. Chaves)

2002

2001 The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America. Princeton, Markus Wiener Publisher (co-edited and introduction, with Robin Law)

2001

2000 Identity in the Shadow of Slavery. Black Atlantic Series, London, Cassell Academic, Black Atlantic Series (editor)

2000

2000 Slaves and Slave Holders on the Gold Coast: Towards an Understanding of Social Bondage in West Africa , by Peter Haenger. Basel, P. Schglettwein Publishing (co-edited with J.J. Shafer)

2000

2000 Transformations in Slavery. History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2nd and revised edition

2000

1997 Displacement and the Politics of Violence in Nigeria. Leiden: Brill, International Studies in Sociology and Anthropology (originally published as a special issue on population displacement in contemporary Nigeria, Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 33, no. 1/2 (co-edited with Patricia Ama Tokunbo Williams)

1997

1997 Pilgrims, Interpreters and Agents: French Reconnaissance Reports on the Sokoto Caliphate and Borno, 1891-1895. Madison: African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin (co-edited with A.S. Kanya-Forstner)

1997

1995 Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology. London, Routledge (co-edited with Jordan Goodman and Andrew Sherratt)

1995

1994 Pawnship in Africa: Debt Bondage in Historical Perspective. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press (co-edited with Toyin Falola)

1994

1994 Slavery and its Abolition in French West Africa: The Official Reports of G. Poulet, E. Roume, and G. Deherme. Madison, African Studies program (co-edited with A.S. Kanya-Forstner)

1994

1994 The Sokoto Caliphate and the European Powers, 1890-1906. Special issue of Paideuma (co-edited with A.S. Kanya-Forstner)

1994

1994 Unfree Labor in the Development of the Atlantic World. London: Frank Cass; also special issue of Slavery and Abolition (co-edited with Nicholas Rogers)

1994

1993 Slow Death for Slavery. The Course of Abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897-1936. Cambridge University Press, African Studies Series (with J.S. Hogendorn)

1993

1986 Africans in Bondage. Studies in Slavery and the Slave Trade. Madison, Wisconsin, African Studies Program (editor)

1986

1986 Salt of the Desert Sun. A History of Salt Production and Trade in the Central Sudan. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, African Studies Series

1986

1985 The Workers of African Trade. Beverly Hills, Sage Publications (co edited with Catherine Coquery Vidrovitch)

1985

1983 Transformations in Slavery. History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, African Studies Series

1983

1981 The Ideology of Slavery in Africa. Beverly Hills, Sage Publications (editor)

1981

1980 Caravans of Kola. The Hausa Kola Trade, 1700-1900. Zaria, Ahmadu Bello University Press; and Ibadan, University Press, Ltd.

1980

Journal Articles

Publication
Year

2015 “Maintaining Network Boundaries: Islamic Law and Commerce from Sahara to Guinea Shores,” Slavery and Abolition, 36:2, 211-32 (with Jennifer Lofkrantz)

2015

2015 "Jihad, 'Era das Revoluções' e história atlântica: desafiando a interpretação de Reis da história brasileira," Topoi, 16:30, 390-401

2015

2014 "Jihad na Africa Ocidental durante a “Era das Revoluções”: em direcao a um dialogo com Eric Hobsbawm e Eugene Genovese," Topoi, 15:28, 22-67

2014

2012 “Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa – What’s in a Name?” Atlantic Studies, 9:2

2012

2012 “Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa – What’s in a Name?” Atlantic Studies, 9:2, 165-84

2012

2011 “Freedom Narratives of Trans-Atlantic Slavery,” Slavery and Abolition, 32:1, 91-107

2011

2011 “Gustavus Vassa, alias Olaudah Equiano, en la Costa de Mosquitos: Supervisor de Plantación y Abolicionista,” Revista de Temas Nicaragüenses, 36, 102-45

2011

2011 “Les origines de Catherine Mulgrave Zimmermann: considérations méthodologiques,” Cahiers des Anneaux de la Mémoire 14, 247-63

2011

2009 “Extending the Frontiers of Transatlantic Slavery, Partially,” Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 11:1, 57-70

2009

2007 “Comparing the Life Histories of Two Muslims in the Americas: Muhammad Kab? Saghanaghu and Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua,” Estudios de Asia y Africa

2007

2007 “Construction of Identity: Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa?” Slavery and Abolition, 28, 1

2007

2007 “Patterns in Regulation and Collaboration in the Slave Trade of West Africa,” Leidschrift, 22, 1

2007

2006 “Autobiography and Memory: Gustavus Vassa and the Abolition of the Slave Trade,” Slavery and Abolition, 27:3, 317-47

2006

2006 “Construction of Identity: Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa?” Historically Speaking, 7:3, 8-9, reprinted in Donald A. Yerxa, ed., Recent Themes in the History of Africa and the Atlantic World: Historians in Conversation (Charleston: University of South Carolina Press, 2008), 93-100

2006

2006 “Mercadores e carregadores das Caravanas do Sudão Central, século XIX,” Tempo: Revista de História (Rio de Janeiro), 10:20, 61-82

2006

2006 “Slavery in Ecclesiastical Archives: Preserving the Records,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 86:2, 337-46 (with Mariza Soares, Jane Landers, and Andrew McMichael)

2006

2006 “The Children of Slavery: The Trans-Atlantic Phase,” Slavery and Abolition, 27:2, 197-218

2006

2005 “The Urban Background of Enslaved Muslims in the Americas,” Slavery and Abolition, 26:3, 347-72

2005

2004 “ ‘This Horrid Hole’: Royal Authority, Commerce and Credit at Bonny, 1690-1840,” Journal of African History, 45:3, 363-92 (with David Richardson)

2004

2002 “Identidade e a Miragem da Ethnicidade: A Jornada de Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua para as Américas,” Afro-Ásia, 27: 9-39

2002

2002 “Islam, Slavery, and Political Transformation in West Africa: Constraints on the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” Outre-Mers: Revue d’histoire, 89: 247-82

2002

2001 “The Business of Slaving: Pawnship in Western Africa, c. 1600-1810,” Journal of African History,42:1, 67-89 (with David Richardson)

2001

2001 “The Oral History of Royal Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate: An Interview with Sallama Dako,” History in Africa, 28: 273-91 (with Sean Stilwell and Ibrahim Hamza)

2001

2000 “Jihad e Escravidao: As Origens dos Escravos Muculmanos de Bahia,” Topoi (Rio de Janeiro), 1, 11-44

2000

2000 “J.K. Cochrane: “‘Exploration in Bornu’: An Account of Borno and Bedde in 1902,” Bulletin of the Museum Society of Maiduguri, 10

2000

1999 “Borgu in the Atlantic Slave Trade,” African Economic History, 27 (with Robin Law)

1999

1999 “Cerner les identities au sein de la diaspora africaine, l’islam et l’esclavage aux Ameriques,” Cahiers des Anneaux de la Memoire, 1, 249-78

1999

1999 “Les origenes de los esclavos en las Americas Perspectivas Methodologicas,” Revista de Historia, 36.

1999

1999 "Trust, Pawnship and Atlantic History: The Institutional Foundations of the Old Calabar Slave Trade,” American Historical Review, 104:2, 332-55 (with David Richardson)

1999

1997 "Editing Nineteenth-Century Intelligence Reports on the Sokoto Caliphate and Borno: The Advantages of a Collaborative Approach," History in Africa, 24, 195-204 (with A.S. Kanya-Forstner).

1997

1997 "La vie quotidienne en Afrique de l'Ouest au temps de la `Route des esclaves'", Diogène, 179, 3-19.

1997

1995 "British Abolition and its Impact on Slave Prices at the Atlantic Coast of Africa, 1783-1850," Journal of Economic History, 55:1 (with David Richardson), 98-119.

1995

1995 "Competing Markets for Male and Female Slaves: Slave Prices in the Interior of West Africa, 1780-1850," International Journal of African Historical Studies, 28:2, 261-93 (with David Richardson).

1995

1994 "Introduction," Special issue on the Sokoto Caliphate and the European Powers, 1890-1906," Paideuma, 49, 7-14 (with A.S. Kanya-Forstner).

1994

1994 "Background to Rebellion: The Origins of Muslim Slaves in Bahia," Slavery and Abolition, 15:2, 151-80.

1994

1994 "Introduction: Unfree Labour in the Development of the Atlantic World," Slavery and Abolition, 15:2 (with N. Rogers)

1994

1993 "C.L. Temple's `Notes on the History of Kano'," Sudanic Africa: A Journal of Historical Sources (with Abdullahi Mahadi and Mansur Ibrahim Mukhtar), 4, 7-76.

1993

1992 "Commentary" on John Hunwick, "Falkeiana II: A Letter from the Amir of Mafara to the Amir of Zamfara," Sudanic Africa. A Journal of Historical Sources, 3, 103-105.

1992

1992 "Collaborative Research in the Recovery of Documentation on the Conquest of the Sokoto Caliphate," Sudanic Africa: A Journal of Historical Sources, 3, 165-172 (with A.S. Kanya-Forstner).

1992

1992 "Murgu: The Wages of Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate," Slavery and Abolition, 24:1, 168-185.

1992

1991 "Miller's Vision of Meillassoux," International Journal of African Historical Studies, 24:1, 133-145.

1991

1990 "Concubinage in the Sokoto Caliphate," Slavery and Abolition, XXI:2, 159-189.

1990

1990 "Revolutionary Mahdism and Resistance to Colonial Rule in the Sokoto Caliphate (1905-1906)," Journal of African History, 31:2, 217-244 (with J.S. Hogendorn).

1990

1989 "The Development and Execution of Frederick Lugard's Policies Toward Slavery in Northern Nigeria," Slavery and Abolition, 10:1, 1-43 (with J.S. Hogendorn).

1989

1989 "The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa: A Review of the Literature," Journal of African History, 30, 365-94

1989

1988 "Concubinage and the Status of Women Slaves in Early Colonial Northern Nigeria," Journal of African History, 29:2, 245-266.

1988

1984 "Commercial Sectors in the Economy of the Nineteenth Century Central Sudan: the Trans Saharan Trade and the Desert Side Salt Trade," African Economic History, 13:85 116.

1984

1982 "Polanyi's `Ports of Trade': Salaga and Kano in the Nineteenth Century," Canadian Journal of African Studies, 16:2, 245-278.

1982

1982 "The Volume of the Atlantic Slave Trade: A Synthesis," Journal of African History, 23:4, 473-501. (Reprinted in Paul Finkelman, ed., Outstanding Articles on Slavery, Hamden, Conn., Garland Publishing, Inc.; also reprinted in David Northrup, ed., The Atlantic Slave Trade, Lexington, Mass., D.C. Heath and Co., 1994).

1982

1980 "Kola in the History of West Africa," Cahiers d'études africaines. 20:1/2 97-134; 173-175. Commentaries by Yves Person, Stephen Baier, Jean Loup Amselle, and Jean Pierre Chauveau, 149-171.

1980

1979 "Indigenous African Slavery," Historical Reflections/ Reflexions Historiques, 6:1, 19-6l. Reprinted in Michael Craton, ed., Roots and Branches: Current Directions in Slave Studies (Toronto, Pergamon Press), 19 6l. Commentaries by Igor Kopytoff and Frederick Cooper, 62 83.

1979

1979 "Pastoralism in Africa," Peasant Studies, 8:2, 73-85.

1979

1979 "The Characteristics of Plantations in the Nineteenth Century Sokoto Caliphate (Islamic West Africa)," American Historical Review, 74:4, 1267-92.

1979

1978 "Notes on the Asl al Wangariyyin," Kano Studies, I:3, 46-52.

1978

1978 "Oral Data Collection and the Economic History of the Central Sudan," Savanna, 8:1, 71-4 (with J.S. Hogendorn).

1978

1978 "Plantations in the Economy of the Sokoto Caliphate," Journal of African History, 19:3, 341-68.

1978

1978 "The Borno Salt Industry," International Journal of African Historical Studies, 11:4, 629-68.

1978

1978 "The Role of the Wangara in the Economic Transformation of the Central Sudan in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries," Journal of African History, 19:2, 173-93 (Reprinted in A.J.R. Russell-Wood, ed., An Expanding World: The European Impact on World History 1450-1800 (Birmingham, Variorium Press, 1996).

1978

1975 "The Desert Side Economy of the Central Sudan," International Journal of African Historical Studies, 8:4, 551-81: reprinted in Michael Glantz, ed., Drought in the Sahel: The Politics of a Natural Disaster (New York, Praeger, 1976), 145 75 (with S. Baier).

1975

1974 "Interregional Monetary Flows in the Precolonial Trade of Nigeria," Journal of African History, 15:4, 563-85.

1974

1973 "The Kambarin Beriberi: The Formation of a Specialized Group of Hausa Kola Traders in the Nineteenth Century," Journal of African History, 14:4, 633-57.

1973

1971 "Long Distance Trade and Islam: The Case of the Nineteenth Century Hausa Kola Trade," Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 5:4, 537-47.

1971

Conference Papers

Publication
Year

“Narrative Strategies in the Explication of the Slave Experience in Africa and America,” Comparative History Workshop, Niagara-on-the-lake, Ont., March 19-21, 2010

2010

“African Slavery: Was it a ‘Migration’?,” Conference on Forced African Labour: Slavery, Migration, and Contemporary Bondage in Africa, Wilberforce Institute, University of Hull, September 23-25, 2009

2009

“Debt and Slavery: the History of a Process of Enslavement,” Indian Ocean World Centre, McGill University, May 7-9, 2009

2009

Institut d’été/d’hivernage, “Esclavage en patrimoine: Représenter l’histoire dans l’espace public,” Port-au-Prince, Haiti, décembre 2009

2009

"Gustavus Vassa and the Scottish Enlightenment,” Panel on "Biography and History: The Debate over Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative," American Historical Association Annual Meeting, New York, January 2, 2009

2009

“Indigenous Interpretations of History in West Africa before 1800,” William A. Brown Memorial Lecture on Islam in West Africa, University of Wisconsin, March 12, 2009

2009

“L’impact de l’abolition de la traite par la Grande-Bretagne sur les discours nationaux en France, aux Etats-Unis, au Danemark, en Espagne, au Portugal et aux Pays-Bas,” Paris – June 11-13, 2009

2009

Key Note Address, “Rethinking Africa and the Atlantic World,” University of Stirling, September 3-6, 2009

2009

“Slavery and Migration in African History,” WISE Workshop, “Understanding Slavery: Historical Slave Systems and Contemporary Problems,” Wilberforce Institute, University of Hull, September 21-22, 2009

2009

“Tales of Slavery: Narratives of Slavery, the Slave Trade and Enslavement in Africa,” University of Toronto, Toronto, May 20-23, 2009

2009

“The Memorialization of Slavery and the Slave Trade in Freedom Narratives,” Early Modern History Workshop, University of Minnesota, February 27, 2009

2009

Workshop on Digital Archiving, Jamaica Archives, Spanish Town, Jamaica, May 29, 2008, sponsored by British Library Endangered Archives Programme and the Tubman Institute

2008

Conference on “Diáspora, nación y diferencia. Poblaciones de origen africano en México y Centroamérica,” Xalapa, Veracruz, México, June 10-13, 2008

2008

“A British-American Forum,” Fraunces Tavern, New York City, June 2, 2008, in association with Beecher House Society and Wilberforce Institute (WISE)

2008

“Biography and History – The Life Stories of Two Muslims of the Slave Trade,” Lecture, Universidad de Costa Rica, May 6, 2008

2008

“British Imperial Ambitions on the Mosquito Shore in the eighteenth century and the Abolition of ‘Indian’ Slavery,” Conference on “Diáspora, nación y diferencia. Poblaciones de origen africano en México y Centroamérica,” Xalapa, Veracruz, México, June 10-13, 2008

2008

“Carnival: ‘People’s Art’ and ‘Taking Back the Streets’,” Toronto, July 30-August 3, 2008, co-sponsored by the Tubman Institute and Kofler Centre at the University of Toronto, organized by Christopher Innes, Canada Research Chair, and co-sponsored by the Tubman Institute

2008

“Commerce and Credit in Katsina in the Nineteenth Century” (with Yacine Daddi Addoun), Workshop on “Historical Constructions of “Race” and Social Hierarchy in Muslim West and North Africa”, Dakar, Senegal, December 9-12, 2008, sponsored by the Tubman Institute and Institute for the Study of Islamic Thought in Africa (ISITA), Northwestern University, in collaboration with the Department of History, Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Dakar

2008

“Comparative Plantation Systems: Conceptualizing the Role of Slavery in the Evolution of the Modern World,” University of Mississippi, November 20, 2008

2008

“Economic Systems along the Trade Route,” Conference on “Slave Routes: Resistance, Abolition, and Creative Process,” New York University, October 9-12, 2008

2008

“Empire, Slave Trade and Slavery: Rebuilding Civil Society in Sierra Leone Past and Present,” Wilberforce Institute (WISE), University of Hull, September 26-28, 2008; organized in collaboration with the Tubman Institute

2008

“Esclavitud, ciudadanía y memoria: Puertos Menores en el Caribe y el Atlántico,” Simposio Internacional, San Fernando de Omoa, Honduras, November 13-16, 2008, co-sponsored by La Secretaria de Cultura, Artes y Deportes, Instituto Hondureño de Antropología e Historia, and Tubman Institute

2008

« Festival on Memories of Slavery – Documenting the Heritage of the Slave Trade through Video - Patrimoine et mémoire de l'esclavage et de la traite. Festival de la vidéo de recherche » The First Annual Research Video Festival, Nat Taylor Cinema, York University, April 28, 2008

2008

Colloque International Lancement du Programme EURSCL (7e PCRD), < Les silences nationaux sur les exclavages et les traits et leurs heritages contemporains sur la question des migrations > Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Fort de France, Martinique, March 21, 2008

2008

“Living history: Encountering the memory of the heirs of slavery,” workshop at the American Historical Association Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 6, 2008

2008

Meeting in the Gambia on restoration of national archives through a pilot digitization Project, funded through the Tubman Social Justice Fund and in collaboration with the Tubman Institute, May 13-16, 2008

2008

“Memoralizing Slavery and the Slave Trade in ‘Freedom Narratives’,” Department of History, Brock University, March 7, 2008

2008

Panel Discussion, “This Ambiguous Anniversary,” Conference on “Ending the International Slave Trade: A Bicentenary Inquiry,” College of Charleston, March 26-29, 2008

2008

Round table discussion with the Honorable Governor General of Canada, "De la fin de l'esclavage à la diversité culturelle: se souvenir d'hier pour mieux dialoguer aujourd'hui," Bordeaux, May 10, 2008; organized through Office of the Governor General of Canada

2008

“Scarification and the Loss of History in the African Diaspora,” Lecture, Department of History, University of Pittsburgh, February 5-6, 2008

2008

“Scarification and the Loss of History in the African Diaspora,” Colloque International Lancement du Programme EURSCL (7e PCRD), < Les silences nationaux sur les exclavages et les traits et leurs heritages contemporains sur la question des migrations > Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Fort de France, Martinique, March 21, 2008

2008

“Second Workshop on Endangered Archives,” Tubman Institute, York University, April 19, 2008

2008

“Biography and Autobiography: Representations of Self and Others in the Writings of Africans during the Era of Slavery,” presented at « Blacks or Niggers », « Africans or Hyphenated Afro’s », « Slave descendants or Immigrants » Deconstructing the categories of designation and questioning the representations of identity in the past and present, Institut Interdisciplinaire Virtuel des Hautes Études sur les Esclavages et les Traites - Virtual Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies of Slavery and the Slave Trade, Aix-en-Provence, August 23-29, 2008

2008

“The Legacies of Slavery for Africa and America,” University of British Columbia, October 29-30, 2008

2008

“The Province of Senegambia – An Early British Colony in Africa (1765-83),” presented at “Empire, Slave Trade and Slavery: Rebuilding Civil Society in Sierra Leone Past and Present,” Wilberforce Institute (WISE), University of Hull, September 26-28, 2008

2008

Workshop on Digital Archiving, Jamaica Archives, Spanish Town, Jamaica, May 29, 2008, sponsored by British Library Endangered Archives Programme and the Tubman Institute, and organized by Nadine Hunt

2008

Institut d’été/d’hivernage , « Blacks or Negroes », « Africans or Hyphenated Afro’s », « Slave descendants or Immigrants » Deconstructing the categories of designation and questioning the representations of identity in the past and present,” Institut Interdisciplinaire Virtuel des Hautes Études sur les Esclavages et les Traites - Virtual Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies of Slavery and the Slave Trade, Aix-en-Provence, August 23-29, 2008

2008

“African Trajectories of Slavery: Perceptions, Practices, Experiences,” Centre of African Studies, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, 25-26 May 2007

2007

“Alcohol in the Atlantic World: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives,” York University, Toronto (Canada) 24-27 October, 2007

2007

“Confronting Slavery: Towards a Dialogue of Understanding,” Rio de Janeiro, 22-25 November 2007

2007

“Essaouira 2007: 10ème édition du Festival Gnawas et Musiques du Monde,” Morocco, June 19-23, 2007

2007

“Freedom: Retrospective and Prospective,” University of the West Indies, Jamaica, August 31 – September 1, 2007

2007

“III Encontro Internacional de História de Angola,” Ministério da Cultura, Luanda, Angola, 25-28 September 2007

2007

Keynote, Conference on Venture Smith, University of Connecticut, 20-21 September 2007

2007

“Micro-histoire et histoires de vie,” CIRESC Symposium, EHESS, Paris, May 31–June 1, 2007

2007

“Scotland, Slavery and Abolition,” New College, University of Edinburgh, November 10, 2007

2007

“Sex, Power and Slavery: The Dynamics of Carnal Relations under Enslavement,” McGill University, Montreal, 19-21 April 2007

2007

“Slavery: Unfinished Business,” Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation (WISE), University of Hull, 17-19 May 2007

2007

“ ‘The Bloody Writing is for ever torn’: Domestic and International Consequences of the First Governmental Efforts to Abolish the Atlantic Slave Trade,” Omohundro Institute, Cape Coast, Ghana, 8-12 August, 2007

2007

Commentary, “Navigating around Colonialism: Culture and Exchange beyond the Reaches of the Imperial State,” Atlantic History Workshop, "'Recapricorning' the Atlantic: Luso-Brazilian and Luso-African Perspectives on the Atlantic World," University of Michigan and Michigan State University, May 11-12, 2006

2006

“Gustavus Vassa, alias Olaudah Equiano, on the Mosquito Shore: Plantation Overseer cum Abolitionist,” Symposium on Slavery, Culture, and Religion, Cahuita, Costa Rica, 11-14 February 2006

2006

“Harriet Tubman,” Conference on “Names on the Wall,” Wilberforce Institute for the study of Slavery and Emancipation (WISE), University of Hull, July 6-8, 2006

2006

“Identity and Diaspora: The Interesting Narrative of Gustavus Vassa, alias Olaudah Equiano,” McMaster University, March 2, 2006

2006

“Olaudah Equiano, alias Gustavus Vassa: African Icon or American Trickster?” John S. Saul Interdisciplinary Graduate Seminar, York University, March 14, 2006

2006

“The Myth of Liberia and the African Setting of the Kru Coast: A Critique of David Brian Davis, ‘Exiles, Exodus, and Promised Lands’,” Tanner Lectures, Stanford University, February 22-24, 2006

2006

“The Slave Trade as Enforced Migration,” Conference on “Removing Peoples: Forced Migration in the Modern World (1850 – 1950),” University of York, April 20 – 22, 2006

2006

“Amerindian, African, European – Interface, Interaction, Intercourse,” Keynote Address, Conference on Activating the Past: Latin America in the Black Atlantic, UCLA, April 23-4, 2005

2005

“Autobiography and Memory: Gustavus Vassa and the Abolition of the Slave Trade,” Colloque international/International Conference: Mémoires croisées : esclavage et diaspora africaine – Crossing Memories : Slavery and African Diaspora, Université Laval, 2-3 May 2005

2005

“Comparing the Life Histories of Two Muslims in the Americas,” El Colegio de Mexico, 26 April 2005

2005

“Las rutas de la esclavitud y la experiencia en África,” Conference on Negros, mulatos y morenos de Guerrero y sus costas: afrodescendientes y diversidad cultural, Acapulco, 27-29 April 2005

2005

“The African Dimension,” Conferencia sobre Etnicidad en la Región Centroamericana, Antigua Guatemala, 9-12 March 2005

2005

“Alternatives to Revolution and Insurrection – Olaudah Equiano and the Abortive Plantation Scheme of Dr. Charles Irving on the Mosquito Shore,” Conference on Revolución, Independencia y Emancipación. La lucha contra la esclavitud, Limón, Costa Rica, 26-28 August 2004

2004

Chair, Panel on Mediterranean and African Political Economies, Conference “The Atlantic World and Virginia, 1550-1624,” Omohundro Institute on Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, March 2004

2004

Chair, Panel on Yoruba Slavery, “Yoruba in the History of Trans-Atlantic Slavery,” Conference on “Perspectives on Yoruba History and Culture,” University of Texas, 26-28 March 2004

2004

“Civilian Casualties in the Context of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” Conference on “Collateral Damage,” University of Toronto, 28-29 May 2004

2004

Commentator, Between Race and Place: Blacks and Blackness in Central America and the Mainland Caribbean, Tulane University, November 12-13, 2004

2004

Panel Coordinator, Canadian Association of African Studies Annual Meeting, Joint sessions with the African Studies Association, New Orleans, November 2004

2004

Session Organizer, African Diaspora Panels, African Studies Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, November 2004

2004

“The Children of Slavery - the Trans-Atlantic Phase,” Conference on “Children and Slavery,” Université d’Avignon, Avignon, 20-22 May 2004

2004

“Urban and Rural: The Experiences of Enslaved Muslims in Africa and the Americas,” Atlantic History Seminar, Harvard University, November 6, 2004

2004

“An Afro-Centric Perspective on the Trans-Atlantic World during the Era of Slavery,” Keynote Address, Sixth Annual Africana Studies Student Research Colloquium, Bowling Green State University, March 21, 2003

2003

“An Afro-Centric Perspective on the Trans-Atlantic World during the Era of Slavery,” Keynote Address, Sixth Annual Africana Studies Student Research Colloquium, Bowling Green State University, March 21, 2003

2003

“An Afro-Centric Perspective on Trans-Atlantic Slavery,” African Studies Symposium, Brock University, 4 February 2003

2003

“Archives, Intangible Heritage, and Museums,” presented at “African Diaspora: The Making of the Atlantic World,” Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, June 28 - July 1, 2003

2003

Chair, "African Urban Spaces: History and Culture," University of Texas, Austin, March 28 - 30, 2003

2003

Chair, Panel on Slavery, Captives and Captive Labour, Tri-University History Conference, University of Guelph, 8 November 2003

2003

“Escravidão Africana & Tráfico Atlântico nas Américas,” Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) June 2-4, 2003

2003

“La Narrativa Africana y la Diáspora,” Festival de la Cultura Negra, Limón, Costa Rica, 22 August 2003

2003

“Narratives of Trans-Atlantic Slavery: The Lives of Two Muslims, Muhammad Kab? Saghanaghu and Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua,” Conference on “Literary Manifestations of the African Diaspora,” University of Cape Coast, Ghana, 10-14 November 2003

2003

Organizer, Workshop on the Underground Railroad and the History of Blacks in Upper Canada, The Harriet Tubman Resource Centre on the African Diaspora, York University, February 21, 2003

2003

“Rural and Urban in the Context of Caribbean Slavery and Emancipation,” Conference on “City Life in Caribbean History,” Cave Hill, Barbados, 11-13 December 2003

2003

“Slavery, the Bilad al-Sudan and the Frontiers of the African Diaspora,” Conference on “Islam, Slavery and Diaspora,” York University, 24-26 October 2003

2003

“The Yoruba Factor in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, Boston, 30 November 2003

2003

Forum for the Expansion of Europe and Global Interaction, Huntington Library, February 14-16, 2002

2002

Chair, Panel on “After Abolition: Europe and Africa,” Canadian Association of African Studies, Toronto, May 29-June 1, 2002

2002

Chair, “Art and Architecture in Urban Africa,” Conference on “African Urban Spaces: History and Culture,” University of Texas, Austin, 28-30 March 2002

2002

“Muhammd Kaba Saghanughu and the Muslim Community of Jamaica,” Syracuse University, April 18, 2002

2002

Organizer, Workshop on Database Construction and the African Diaspora, York University, 2-12 July 2002, www.yorku.ca/nhp

2002

“Publishing Workshop,” Conference on Nigeria in the 20th Century, University of Texas, March 29-31, 2002

2002

Round table, “The Future of Atlantic World Studies,” Allen Morris Conference on the History of Florida and the Atlantic World, Florida State University, February 1-2, 2002

2002

Roundtable, African American Experience Project, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Cultures, New York Public Library, 23 November 2002

2002

“The Arabic Manuscript of Muhammad Kaba Saghanughu of Jamaica, c. 1823,” The Second Conference on Caribbean Culture, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, January 9-12, 2002 (with Yacine Daddi Addoun)

2002

“The Sahara-Atlantic Divide, Or How Women Fitted into the Slave Trade,” Conference on “Slavery and Forced Labour: Women in Slavery,” Université d’Avignon, 16-18 October 2002

2002

“Trans-Atlantic Transformations: The Origins and Identities of Africans in the Americas,” Workshop on “The Trans-Atlantic Construction of the Notions of ‘Race’, Black Culture, Blackness and Antiracism: Towards a New Dialogue between Researchers in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean,” Gorée, Senegal, 11-17 November 2002

2002

“A Importância de Pesquisa em Parceria na Reconstrução da História da Diáspora Africana – O Projeto da UNESCO de Rotas de Escravos e a Experiência do Projeto York/UNESCO do Interior da Nigéria,” Seminar o “Mês da consciencia negra,” Rio de Janeiro, 6-8 November 2001

2001

“Anglo-Efik Relations and Protection against Illegal Enslavement at Old Calabar, 1740-1807,” Conference on “Fighting Back: African Strategies Against the Slave Trade,” Rutgers University, February 16-17, 2001 (with David Richardson)

2001

“Baquaqua in Brazil,” Seminar, Universidade Federale da Bahia, February 2001

2001

“Biography and Autobiography,” NEH Summer Institute for College Instructors, “Roots: The African Dimension of Early American History and Culture, through the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” University of Virginia, Charlottesville, June 28, 2001

2001

“Community of Believers: Trinidad Muslims and the Return to Africa, 1810-1850,” Conference on “Aguda: Aspects of Afro-Brazilian Heritage in the Bight of Benin,” Ecole du Patrimoine Africain, Porto Novo, Republique du Benin, 26-30 November 2001 (with David Trotman)

2001

“Conceptualizing and Defining the African Diaspora,” Roundtable Discussion, Symposium on the African Diaspora, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York, May 4, 2001

2001

“Creating the Community of Believers: African Muslims in Trinidad, c. 1800-1850,” Second International Conference, “Esclavage et religion dans les temps modernes,” Essaouira, Morocco, June 15-17, 2001 (with David Trotman)

2001

“Cyrus Francis Perkins’ Busha’s Mistress, or Catherine the Fugitive: Historical and Literary Context,” Harriet Tubman Seminar, York University, March 24, 2001 (with Verene Shepherd)

2001

“Debating the African Diaspora: African Studies and African Diaspora Studies,” Roundtable Discussion, African Studies Association Annual Meeting, Houston, Texas, November 15-18, 2001

2001

“From Slaves to Palm Oil: Anglo-Biafran Commercial Relations 1767-1841,” Conference on “Maritime Empires,” National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, July 2-3, 2001 (with David Richardson)

2001

“Kola Nuts in Cartegena: 17th Century Trans-Atlantic Exchange,” Simposio internacional, “Pasado, Presente y Futuro de los Afrodescendientes,” Cartagena, 18-20 October, 2001 (with Renée Souldore-La France)

2001

“Methodology through the Ethnic Lens,” Pathways: A Conference on Sources and Methods in African Scholarship, University of Texas, March 30-April 1, 2001

2001

“Methodology through the Ethnic Lens: The Study of Atlantic Africa,” Historian’s Craft, Department of History, York University, October 25, 2001

2001

“The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua," Conference on “Slave Narratives,” Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio, October 11-13, 2001

2001

“The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: A Man of the African Diaspora,” World Archaeological Congress, Intercongress on the African Diaspora, Jacob Gelt Dekker Institute, Curaçao, 23-29 April, 2001

2001

“The Ethnic Origins of Enslaved Africans in the Americas,” Atlantic History Lecture Series, University of Southern Maine, February 26, 2001

2001

“The Importance of Collaborative Research in the Study of the African Diaspora,” Workshop on Atlantic Crossings: Women’s Voices, Women’s Stories from the Caribbean and the Nigerian Hinterland, Dartmouth College, May 18-20, 2001

2001

“The State of Africa, African-American, Caribbean, and African Diaspora Studies,” Roundtable Discussion, Princeton University, October 10, 2001

2001

“The State of African, African-American, Caribbean, and African Diaspora Stuides,” A symposium, Princeton University, October 10, 2001

2001

“The Visual Representations of Ethnicity of the Slave Trade,” Byrne Lecture, Vanderbilt University, March 27, 2001

2001

“Ethnic Designations of the Slave Trade,” Black Atlantic/African Diaspora Seminar Series, Rutgers University, February 24, 2000

2000

“Identity and the Mirage of Ethnicity: Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua’s Journey to the Americas,” Conference on Liberté, identité, integration et servitude, Al-Akhawayn University, Morocco, 29-30 Juin 2000

2000

“Letters of the Old Calabar Slave Trade, 1761-1789,” Forum on European Expansion and Global Interaction, St. Augustine, Florida, February 17-19, 2000

2000

“Muslim Freedmen in the Atlantic World: Images of Manumission and Self-Redemption,” Conference on “From Slavery to Freedom: Manumission in the Atlantic World,” October 4-6, 2000, College of Charleston, Charleston

2000

“Slavery and Memory in an Islamic Society: Whose Audience? Which Audience?” Conference on Historians and their Audiences: Mobilizing History for the Millenium, York University, 13-15 April 2000

2000

“That ‘Horrid Hole’: Bonny and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” Conference on “Reprecussions of the Slave Trade: The African Diaspora and the Hinterland of the Bight of Biafra,” Nike Lake, Enugu, July 2000 (with David Richardson)

2000

“The Black Atlantic in the Construction of the “Western” World: Alternative Approaches to the “Europeanization” of the Americas,” Conference on Recasting European and Canadian History: National Consciousness, Migration, Multicultural Lives, Bremen, Germany, 18-21 May 2000

2000

Approach to Teaching


Teaching involves mentoring. It requires knowledge of the field being studied and a willingness to distinguish between learning the facts and discovering how to think critically. Teaching involves expression through writing and learning that the written word is different from the spoken word. Teaching also requires a political and moral commitment to social justice, gender equity, and the search for the truth.


Current Courses

Term Course Number Section Title Type
Fall 2018 GS/HIST5901 3.0 A The African Diaspora SEMR
Fall/Winter 2018 AP/HIST2750 6.0 A African History, 1800 to the Present LECT


Upcoming Courses

Term Course Number Section Title Type
Fall/Winter 2018 AP/HIST2750 6.0 A African History, 1800 to the Present LECT