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Poland Lai

Photo of Poland  Lai

School of Administrative Studies

Assistant Professor

Email: poland.lai@yorku.ca

Accepting New Graduate Students


Poland Lai received her PhD in Law from Osgoode Hall Law School, York University. She received her Bachelor of Commerce (concentration in Management Science and minor in Mathematics) from McGill, her Master of Arts (Political Economy) from Carleton, and her Master of Laws from Osgoode. Her interdisciplinary dissertation deals with the regulation and governance of long-term care homes in Ontario. She has presented her findings at legal and non-legal conferences. Part of her doctoral research was published as a book chapter in Kate Aubrecht, Christine Kelly and Carla Rice, eds. The Aging-Disability Nexus (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2020). She has also published in the International Journal of Care and Caring. Her doctoral research was supported by the Ontario Graduate Scholarship and other awards. Dr. Lai’s research and teaching interests include various regulation and governance topics, such as the rise of the regulatory state, compliance and enforcement, and regulation inside government. Dr. Lai is no stranger to LA&PS. She was a Tutorial Leader for two courses (Criminology and Equity Studies) during her doctoral studies. Prior to joining the Department of Administrative Studies, she was a senior policy advisor with the Ontario Ministry of Finance. As a seasoned policy professional, Dr. Lai has extensive experience with the Ontario government.

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Current Research Projects

Respecting the Needs and Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Receiving and Providing Care in a Post-Pandemic World

    Summary:

    In Canada, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of numerous laws, policies and guidelines in all levels of government, but how do these affect people with disabilities? Political, fiscal and regulatory decisions made by different levels of government as well as the healthcare system may not always support the rights of people with disabilities. This mixed methods project will critically analyze the impact of relevant laws, policies and guidelines related to care and caregiving on the needs and rights of people with disabilities in Ontario. It seeks to incorporate the lived experience of persons with disabilities into the analysis.

    Description:

    Dr. Lai is looking for individuals to share their experiences with receiving care and/or providing care at the end of the COVID-19 pandemic. Please consider participating in an anonymous, on-line survey. The survey is open to anyone:
    • 18 years or older
    • Lives in Ontario
    • Has a long-term health condition, a disability or problems related to aging.

    Introduction

    To learn more about this study, please watch or listen to a short introduction video (English with caption, ASL with voice over and caption or Langue des signes du Québec):

    English with caption

    ASL with voice over and caption

    Langue des signes du Québec

    You can download the French transcript of the video.

    Before you proceed to complete the on-line survey, you will be asked to provide your consent to participate in the research. I want to highlight a few important points:

        • The information collected will be used to better understand the experience of people with disabilities at the end of the COVID 19-pandemic. I may use the information in conference papers, academic journal articles and policy publications.
        • I may use the aggregate results for funding applications for a larger study in the future.
        • Participation is completely voluntary. Even after you started the survey, you can stop anytime by just closing the browser.
        • Once you start the survey, you will be asked a number of questions. Some of the questions may ask you to recall events, situations or circumstances that were stressful or uncomfortable.
        • The information collected will be kept confidential to the extent allowed by law.
        • More detailed information about the research will be available before you start the survey. You will be asked to confirm that you understand and agree to participate in this research.
        • If you wish, talk to people you trust about whether you want to participate.

     

    Watch introduction video about consent (English with caption)

    Watch introduction video about consent (ASL with voice over and caption)

    Regarder la vidéo de consentement (résumé) (Langue des signes du Québec)

    You can download the French transcript of the overview video about consent.

    How to participate

    The survey is available in English and French.

    English     |     Français

    MS Word version of the survey:   English Français

    If you would like to receive a hard copy (including large print), please send me an e-mail: poland.lai@yorku.ca

    In addition, alternative formats are available:

    • two videos in American Sign Language that present:
      • 1) the research consent form
      • 2) questions from the survey.
    • two videos in Langue des signes du Québec that present:
      • 1) the research consent form
      • 2) questions from the survey

    American Sign Language

    View consent form video    |    View survey video

    Langue des signes du Québec

    Regarder la vidéo de consentement Regarder la vidéo de l'enquête

    Acknowledgement

    Some of the questions in my survey were adapted from existing questionnaires. Two questions were adapted from: Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging, COVID-19 Questionnaire Study, Exit Questionnaire, available at: CLSA data collection : consulted on November 8, 2022.

    Other questionnaires include various Statistics Canada surveys.

    References

    In addition to existing surveys, this survey is informed by existing research. Please see the reference list

    Results

    The results will be available in Spring 2022.

    See more
Challenges of Regulatory Compliance in the Long-Term Care Sector in Ontario

    Summary:

    It is hard to ignore the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the long-term care system in Canada. In Ontario, the COVID-19 pandemic draws attention to long-standing issues with the funding, regulation and oversight of long-term care homes (nursing homes). It is probably not controversial to suggest that long-term care is highly regulated in Ontario and elsewhere. Rules in the form of formal law (e.g. provincial statutes and regulations) are intended to protect the human rights of residents, reduce safety risks to residents and workers and promote accountability in the long-term system. However, a highly prescriptive regulatory regime alone is not enough to protect long-term care residents and workers. Compliance with regulatory requirements is also an important component. Rules that are not followed rarely achieve their public policy objectives.

    Description:

    The goal of this project is to explore why long-term care homes comply with regulatory requirements (or not) in order to improve the performance of long-term care homes in Ontario. More specifically, empirical research will be undertaken to identify different motivations and factors that explain compliance in long-term care homes. Although motivations to comply play a fundamental part in shaping behaviours of regulated entities (such as businesses), other factors, such as enforcement strategies of the respective regulators, also influence compliance behaviours. In Ontario, homes are very diverse in terms of geographic location, ownership and size. Accordingly, one could expect that homes vary in relation to motivations to comply, knowledge about the law, managerial capacity and other resources. Research is needed to understand why they comply, barriers to compliance and whether enforcement strategies will make a difference in their compliance behaviours.

    See more
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Funders:
    Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council

Current Courses

Term Course Number Section Title Type
Winter 2022 AP/ADMS2610 3.0 P Elements of Law: Part One LECT
Winter 2022 AP/ADMS2610 3.0 S Elements of Law: Part One REMT



Poland Lai received her PhD in Law from Osgoode Hall Law School, York University. She received her Bachelor of Commerce (concentration in Management Science and minor in Mathematics) from McGill, her Master of Arts (Political Economy) from Carleton, and her Master of Laws from Osgoode. Her interdisciplinary dissertation deals with the regulation and governance of long-term care homes in Ontario. She has presented her findings at legal and non-legal conferences. Part of her doctoral research was published as a book chapter in Kate Aubrecht, Christine Kelly and Carla Rice, eds. The Aging-Disability Nexus (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2020). She has also published in the International Journal of Care and Caring. Her doctoral research was supported by the Ontario Graduate Scholarship and other awards. Dr. Lai’s research and teaching interests include various regulation and governance topics, such as the rise of the regulatory state, compliance and enforcement, and regulation inside government. Dr. Lai is no stranger to LA&PS. She was a Tutorial Leader for two courses (Criminology and Equity Studies) during her doctoral studies. Prior to joining the Department of Administrative Studies, she was a senior policy advisor with the Ontario Ministry of Finance. As a seasoned policy professional, Dr. Lai has extensive experience with the Ontario government.

Current Research Projects

Respecting the Needs and Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Receiving and Providing Care in a Post-Pandemic World

    Summary:

    In Canada, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of numerous laws, policies and guidelines in all levels of government, but how do these affect people with disabilities? Political, fiscal and regulatory decisions made by different levels of government as well as the healthcare system may not always support the rights of people with disabilities. This mixed methods project will critically analyze the impact of relevant laws, policies and guidelines related to care and caregiving on the needs and rights of people with disabilities in Ontario. It seeks to incorporate the lived experience of persons with disabilities into the analysis.

    Description:

    Dr. Lai is looking for individuals to share their experiences with receiving care and/or providing care at the end of the COVID-19 pandemic. Please consider participating in an anonymous, on-line survey. The survey is open to anyone:
    • 18 years or older
    • Lives in Ontario
    • Has a long-term health condition, a disability or problems related to aging.

    Project Type: Funded
Challenges of Regulatory Compliance in the Long-Term Care Sector in Ontario

    Summary:

    It is hard to ignore the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the long-term care system in Canada. In Ontario, the COVID-19 pandemic draws attention to long-standing issues with the funding, regulation and oversight of long-term care homes (nursing homes). It is probably not controversial to suggest that long-term care is highly regulated in Ontario and elsewhere. Rules in the form of formal law (e.g. provincial statutes and regulations) are intended to protect the human rights of residents, reduce safety risks to residents and workers and promote accountability in the long-term system. However, a highly prescriptive regulatory regime alone is not enough to protect long-term care residents and workers. Compliance with regulatory requirements is also an important component. Rules that are not followed rarely achieve their public policy objectives.

    Description:

    The goal of this project is to explore why long-term care homes comply with regulatory requirements (or not) in order to improve the performance of long-term care homes in Ontario. More specifically, empirical research will be undertaken to identify different motivations and factors that explain compliance in long-term care homes. Although motivations to comply play a fundamental part in shaping behaviours of regulated entities (such as businesses), other factors, such as enforcement strategies of the respective regulators, also influence compliance behaviours. In Ontario, homes are very diverse in terms of geographic location, ownership and size. Accordingly, one could expect that homes vary in relation to motivations to comply, knowledge about the law, managerial capacity and other resources. Research is needed to understand why they comply, barriers to compliance and whether enforcement strategies will make a difference in their compliance behaviours.

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Funders:
    Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council


Current Courses

Term Course Number Section Title Type
Winter 2022 AP/ADMS2610 3.0 P Elements of Law: Part One LECT
Winter 2022 AP/ADMS2610 3.0 S Elements of Law: Part One REMT