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Poland Lai

Photo of Poland  Lai

Assistant Professor

Email: poland.lai@yorku.ca

Accepting New Graduate Students


Poland Lai received her PhD in Law from Osgoode Hall Law School, York University. She received her Bachelor of Commerce (concentration in Management Science and minor in Mathematics) from McGill, her Master of Arts (Political Economy) from Carleton, and her Master of Laws from Osgoode. Her interdisciplinary dissertation deals with the regulation and governance of long-term care homes in Ontario. She has presented her findings at legal and non-legal conferences. Part of her doctoral research was published as a book chapter in Kate Aubrecht, Christine Kelly and Carla Rice, eds. The Aging-Disability Nexus (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2020). She has also published in the International Journal of Care and Caring, the Windsor Review of Legal and Social Issues, Disability & Society and Health Law in Canada. Her doctoral research was supported by the Ontario Graduate Scholarship and other awards. Dr. Lai’s research and teaching interests include various regulation and governance topics, such as the rise of the regulatory state, compliance and enforcement, and regulation inside government. Prior to joining the School of Administrative Studies, she was a senior policy advisor with the Ontario Ministry of Finance. As a seasoned policy professional, Dr. Lai has extensive experience with the Ontario government.

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Appointments

Faculty of Graduate Studies

Current Research Projects

Respecting the Needs and Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Receiving and Providing Care in a Post-Pandemic World

    Summary:

    In Canada, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of numerous laws, policies and guidelines in all levels of government, but how do these affect people with disabilities? Political, fiscal and regulatory decisions made by different levels of government as well as the healthcare system may not always support the rights of people with disabilities. This mixed methods project critically analyzed the impact of relevant laws, policies and guidelines related to care and caregiving on the needs and rights of people with disabilities in Ontario. It incorporated the lived experience of persons with disabilities into the analysis.

    Results

    The results will be available in Spring 2023.

    See more
    End Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2021

Challenges of Regulatory Compliance in the Long-Term Care Sector in Ontario

    Summary:

    It is hard to ignore the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the long-term care system in Canada. In Ontario, the COVID-19 pandemic draws attention to long-standing issues with the funding, regulation and oversight of long-term care homes (nursing homes). It is probably not controversial to suggest that long-term care is highly regulated in Ontario and elsewhere. Rules in the form of formal law (e.g. provincial statutes and regulations) are intended to protect the human rights of residents, reduce safety risks to residents and workers and promote accountability in the long-term system. However, a highly prescriptive regulatory regime alone is not enough to protect long-term care residents and workers. Compliance with regulatory requirements is also an important component. Rules that are not followed rarely achieve their public policy objectives.

    Description:

    The goal of this project is to explore why long-term care homes comply with regulatory requirements (or not) in order to improve the performance of long-term care homes in Ontario. More specifically, empirical research will be undertaken to identify different motivations and factors that explain compliance in long-term care homes. Although motivations to comply play a fundamental part in shaping behaviours of regulated entities (such as businesses), other factors, such as enforcement strategies of the respective regulators, also influence compliance behaviours. In Ontario, homes are very diverse in terms of geographic location, ownership and size. Accordingly, one could expect that homes vary in relation to motivations to comply, knowledge about the law, managerial capacity and other resources. Research is needed to understand why they comply, barriers to compliance and whether enforcement strategies will make a difference in their compliance behaviours.

    “Enrolling users to monitor compliance in long-term care (LTC) in Ontario: can it work? – Phase 1”

    Some scholars argue that regulation, monitoring, and enforcement can have many different sources and that there is no longer one centralized actor responsible for overseeing and coordinating the entire process (van Wingerde and Bisschop 2022). In this project, I want to explore whether long-term care home residents and their families and friends are willing and able to participate in enforcement and compliance. This project focuses on Ontario.

    Introduction

    To learn more about this study, please watch or listen to a short introduction video (English with caption)

    English with caption

    ASL

    Langue des signes du Québec

    You can download the French transcript of the video.

    I am looking for Ontarians to complete an on-line, anonymous survey. The survey will ask participants about their experiences, knowledge, opinion, and perceptions of long-term care (also known as nursing homes or homes for the aged). Participants will also be asked to review a hypothetical situation and then answer a number of questions. The survey will also ask participants to share background about themselves, for example, their age and gender. Participants will not provide their names, names of their long-term care homes or geographic locations. Please consider participating in an anonymous, on-line survey. The survey is open to anyone:
    • 18 years or older
    • Lives in Ontario
    • Lives in a long-term care home in Ontario or
    • Is a family member, friend, neighbour or unpaid caregiver of a current or former long-term care resident in Ontario
    The survey will take about 15-20 mins to complete. You can access the survey in late March.

    Before you proceed to complete the on-line survey, you will be asked to provide your consent to participate in the research. I want to highlight a few important points:

        • Participation is completely voluntary. Even after you started the survey, you can stop anytime by just closing the browser.
        • Once you start the survey, you will be asked a number of questions. Some of the questions may ask you to recall events, situations or circumstances that were stressful or uncomfortable.
        • You can refuse to answer any or all of the questions.
        • More detailed information about the research will be available before you start the survey. You will be asked to confirm that you understand and agree to participate in this research.
        • If you wish, talk to people you trust about whether you want to participate.

     

    Watch introduction video about consent (English with caption)

    Watch introduction video about consent (ASL)

    Regarder la vidéo de consentement (résumé) (Langue des signes du Québec)

    You can download the French transcript of the overview video about consent.

    How to participate

    This research has received ethics review and approval by the Human Participants Review Sub-Committee, York University’s Ethics Review Board (Certificate # e2022-446) and conforms to the standards of the Canadian Tri-Council Research Ethics guidelines.

    The survey is available in English and French.

    English | Français

    In addition, alternative formats are available:

    • two videos in American Sign Language that present:
      • 1) the research consent form
      • 2) questions from the survey.
    • two videos in Langue des signes du Québec that present:
      • 1) the research consent form
      • 2) questions from the survey

    American Sign Language

    View consent form video | View survey video

    Langue des signes du Québec

    Regarder la vidéo de consentement | Regarder la vidéo de l'enquête

    See more
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Funders:
    Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
Book Chapters

Publication
Year

Lai, Poland. “Regulation of “care” in Long-Term Care Homes in Ontario, Canada” in Katie Aubrecht, Christine Kelly and Carla Rice, eds. The Aging/Disability Nexus (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2020), 145-160.

2020

Book Reviews

Publication
Year

Lai, Poland. “Book Review of Monetary Redress for Abuse in State Care by Stephen Winter”, Social Policy & Administration (published on-line in February 2023). http://doi.org/10.1111/spol.12904

2023

Lai, Poland. Book Review of Care and Support Rights After Neoliberalism: Balancing Competing Claims Through Policy and Law by Yvette Maker in Canadian Journal of Law and Society / Revue Canadienne Droit et Société, Volume 37(3), 2022, 479-481.
https://doi.org/10.1017/cls.2022.18

2022

Lai, Poland. Book Review of Women, Precarious Work and Care: The Failure of Family-Friendly Rights, by Emily Grabham, Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, Volume 44(4), 2022, 547-549. https://doi.org/10.1080/09649069.2022.2136715

2022

Lai, Poland. Book Review of Deprivation of Liberty in the Shadows of the Institution by Lucy Series, Journal of Care and Caring, Volume 6(4), 2022, 652-653.

2022

Journal Articles

Publication
Year

Lai, Poland (2023). Autonomous care decisions: what can Article 12 of the CRPD offer to older disabled adults and their supporters? Disability & Society, DOI: 10.1080/09687599.2023.2198662 (Published on-line April 10, 2023)
https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/JSE4NCWGU9SH2RANIQUI/full?target=10.1080/09687599.2023.2198662 (50 free copies)

2023

Lai, Poland. (2023). More Beds, Better Care Act, 2022 (Bill 7) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Health Law in Canada Vol 43(4), 94-98.

2023

Lai, Poland. “A Longer View: Human Rights and Safeguards for Long-Term Care Residents” Windsor Review of Legal and Social Issues, Volume 43, 2022, 36-75.

2022

Lai, Poland. “Falling through the Care Cracks: Younger People in Long-Term Care”, International Journal of Care and Caring, Volume 5(4), 2021, 701-707.

2021

Lai, Poland. “Care, Rights and Disability” International Journal of Care and Caring, Volume 4(4), 2020, 599-604.

2020

Lai, Poland. “How New Governance Shapes Changes in the Long-Term Care Home Sector in Ontario, Canada” Journal of Innovations: the Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 20(1), 2015, article 4.

2015


Current Courses

Term Course Number Section Title Type
Winter 2024 AP/ADMS2610 3.0 O Elements of Law: Part One ONCA
Winter 2024 GS/DMGM5110 1.5 M Fundamentals of Public Management LECT



Poland Lai received her PhD in Law from Osgoode Hall Law School, York University. She received her Bachelor of Commerce (concentration in Management Science and minor in Mathematics) from McGill, her Master of Arts (Political Economy) from Carleton, and her Master of Laws from Osgoode. Her interdisciplinary dissertation deals with the regulation and governance of long-term care homes in Ontario. She has presented her findings at legal and non-legal conferences. Part of her doctoral research was published as a book chapter in Kate Aubrecht, Christine Kelly and Carla Rice, eds. The Aging-Disability Nexus (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2020). She has also published in the International Journal of Care and Caring, the Windsor Review of Legal and Social Issues, Disability & Society and Health Law in Canada. Her doctoral research was supported by the Ontario Graduate Scholarship and other awards. Dr. Lai’s research and teaching interests include various regulation and governance topics, such as the rise of the regulatory state, compliance and enforcement, and regulation inside government. Prior to joining the School of Administrative Studies, she was a senior policy advisor with the Ontario Ministry of Finance. As a seasoned policy professional, Dr. Lai has extensive experience with the Ontario government.

Appointments

Faculty of Graduate Studies

Current Research Projects

Respecting the Needs and Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Receiving and Providing Care in a Post-Pandemic World

    Summary:

    In Canada, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of numerous laws, policies and guidelines in all levels of government, but how do these affect people with disabilities? Political, fiscal and regulatory decisions made by different levels of government as well as the healthcare system may not always support the rights of people with disabilities. This mixed methods project critically analyzed the impact of relevant laws, policies and guidelines related to care and caregiving on the needs and rights of people with disabilities in Ontario. It incorporated the lived experience of persons with disabilities into the analysis.

    Project Type: Funded
    End Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2021

Challenges of Regulatory Compliance in the Long-Term Care Sector in Ontario

    Summary:

    It is hard to ignore the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the long-term care system in Canada. In Ontario, the COVID-19 pandemic draws attention to long-standing issues with the funding, regulation and oversight of long-term care homes (nursing homes). It is probably not controversial to suggest that long-term care is highly regulated in Ontario and elsewhere. Rules in the form of formal law (e.g. provincial statutes and regulations) are intended to protect the human rights of residents, reduce safety risks to residents and workers and promote accountability in the long-term system. However, a highly prescriptive regulatory regime alone is not enough to protect long-term care residents and workers. Compliance with regulatory requirements is also an important component. Rules that are not followed rarely achieve their public policy objectives.

    Description:

    The goal of this project is to explore why long-term care homes comply with regulatory requirements (or not) in order to improve the performance of long-term care homes in Ontario. More specifically, empirical research will be undertaken to identify different motivations and factors that explain compliance in long-term care homes. Although motivations to comply play a fundamental part in shaping behaviours of regulated entities (such as businesses), other factors, such as enforcement strategies of the respective regulators, also influence compliance behaviours. In Ontario, homes are very diverse in terms of geographic location, ownership and size. Accordingly, one could expect that homes vary in relation to motivations to comply, knowledge about the law, managerial capacity and other resources. Research is needed to understand why they comply, barriers to compliance and whether enforcement strategies will make a difference in their compliance behaviours.

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Funders:
    Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council

All Publications


Book Chapters

Publication
Year

Lai, Poland. “Regulation of “care” in Long-Term Care Homes in Ontario, Canada” in Katie Aubrecht, Christine Kelly and Carla Rice, eds. The Aging/Disability Nexus (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2020), 145-160.

2020

Book Reviews

Publication
Year

Lai, Poland. “Book Review of Monetary Redress for Abuse in State Care by Stephen Winter”, Social Policy & Administration (published on-line in February 2023). http://doi.org/10.1111/spol.12904

2023

Lai, Poland. Book Review of Care and Support Rights After Neoliberalism: Balancing Competing Claims Through Policy and Law by Yvette Maker in Canadian Journal of Law and Society / Revue Canadienne Droit et Société, Volume 37(3), 2022, 479-481.
https://doi.org/10.1017/cls.2022.18

2022

Lai, Poland. Book Review of Women, Precarious Work and Care: The Failure of Family-Friendly Rights, by Emily Grabham, Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, Volume 44(4), 2022, 547-549. https://doi.org/10.1080/09649069.2022.2136715

2022

Lai, Poland. Book Review of Deprivation of Liberty in the Shadows of the Institution by Lucy Series, Journal of Care and Caring, Volume 6(4), 2022, 652-653.

2022

Journal Articles

Publication
Year

Lai, Poland (2023). Autonomous care decisions: what can Article 12 of the CRPD offer to older disabled adults and their supporters? Disability & Society, DOI: 10.1080/09687599.2023.2198662 (Published on-line April 10, 2023)
https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/JSE4NCWGU9SH2RANIQUI/full?target=10.1080/09687599.2023.2198662 (50 free copies)

2023

Lai, Poland. (2023). More Beds, Better Care Act, 2022 (Bill 7) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Health Law in Canada Vol 43(4), 94-98.

2023

Lai, Poland. “A Longer View: Human Rights and Safeguards for Long-Term Care Residents” Windsor Review of Legal and Social Issues, Volume 43, 2022, 36-75.

2022

Lai, Poland. “Falling through the Care Cracks: Younger People in Long-Term Care”, International Journal of Care and Caring, Volume 5(4), 2021, 701-707.

2021

Lai, Poland. “Care, Rights and Disability” International Journal of Care and Caring, Volume 4(4), 2020, 599-604.

2020

Lai, Poland. “How New Governance Shapes Changes in the Long-Term Care Home Sector in Ontario, Canada” Journal of Innovations: the Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 20(1), 2015, article 4.

2015


Current Courses

Term Course Number Section Title Type
Winter 2024 AP/ADMS2610 3.0 O Elements of Law: Part One ONCA
Winter 2024 GS/DMGM5110 1.5 M Fundamentals of Public Management LECT