pcraven


Paul Craven

Department of Social Science

Professor Emeritus
Senior Scholar
Professor Emeritus, Socio-Legal Studies

Phone: (416) 736-5678 Ext: 55678
Email: pcraven@yorku.ca


The common theme that runs through much of my teaching, research and other professional activities is the interplay of law, employment relations, and political economy.

More...

My publications include books and articles on Canadian labour and legal history. My current research project is a study of labour-management arbitration in Ontario to 1975.

Degrees

Certificate of Studies in Canadian Law, Osgoode Hall Law School
Ph.D., University of Toronto
M.A., University of Toronto
B.A. (Hons.), University of Toronto

Professional Leadership

I practice as a labour-management mediator and arbitrator.

Research Interests

Canadian Studies , Employment and Labour, Political economy, Legal History, Social Science

Current Research Projects

Master & Servant Project Database Guide

    Summary:

    (with Douglas Hay) To accompany the digitization of the M&S Project statute collection.

    See more
A history of labour arbitration in Ontario

    See more
Books

Publication
Year

Petty Justice: Low law and the sessions system in Charlotte County, New Brunswick, 1785-1867 (University of Toronto Press for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History) 2014

2014

Masters, Servants and Magistrates in Britain and the Empire, 1562-1955, University of North Carolina Press for the American Society for Legal History, 2004 (Co-editor with C.D. Hay/Contributor)

2004

Labouring Lives: Work and Workers in 19th-Century Ontario, University of Toronto Press for the Ontario Historical Studies Series, 1995 (Editor/Contributor)

1995

"An Impartial Umpire' - Industrial Relations and the Canadian State, University of Toronto Press, 1980

1980

Book Chapters

Publication
Year

"The law of rules: Prosecuting railway workers in mid-19th-century Ontario," in Jim Phillips, Roy McMurtry and John Saywell, eds., Essays in the History of Canadian Law X: A Tribute to Peter Oliver (Toronto: Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History and the University of Toronto Press, 2008).

2008

“Canada 1670-1935: Symbolic enforcement in Loyalist North America” (in Masters, Servants and Magistrates, above)

2004

“Introduction” (in Masters, Servants and Magistrates, above, with C.D. Hay)

2004

“`The modern spirit of the law': Blake, Mowat, and the Breaches of Contract Act, 1877," in Baker & Phillips, eds., Essays in the History of Canadian Law VIII, in Honour of R.C.B. Risk, University of Toronto Press, 1999

1999

"Labour and Management on the Great Western Railway" (in Labouring Lives, above, 1995)",Labour and Management on the Great Western Railway"

1995

"Introduction" (in Labouring Lives, above, 1995)

1995

“The Criminalization of 'Free' Labour: Master and Servant in Comparative Perspective," in P. Lovejoy and N. Rogers (eds.), Unfree Labour in the Atlantic World (Frank Cass, 1995) (with C.D. Hay)

1995

"The meaning of misadventure: The Baptiste Creek railway disaster of 1854 and its aftermath," in Roger Hall et al., eds., Patterns of the Past: Interpreting Ontario's History, Dundurn Press for the Ontario Historical Society, 1988

1988

"Dimensions of paternalism: discipline and culture in Canadian railway operations in the 1850s," in Craig Heron and Robert Storey, eds., On The Job, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1986 (with T.D. Traves)

1986

"Law and ideology: the Toronto Police Court, 1850-80," in D.H. Flaherty, ed., Essays in the History of Canadian Law II, University of Toronto Press, 1983

1983

"The law of master and servant in mid-nineteenth-century Ontario," in D.H. Flaherty, ed., Essays in the History of Canadian Law I, University of Toronto Press, 1981

1981

"Community ties and support systems: from intimacy to support," in L.S. Bourne, ed., The Form of Cities in Central Canada, University of Toronto Press, 1973 (jointly authored)

1973

Journal Articles

Publication
Year

"Automatic detection and visualization of domain-specific similarities in documents: DWIC analysis and its application in the Master & Servant Project," published on CD-ROM in F.J.A Perez et al., eds., La Historia en una nueva frontera/History in a new frontier (Digibis: Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 1998)

1998

"A general-purpose conceptual clustering engine and its application to historical analysis of statutes," Cahiers Vereniging voor Geschiedenis en Informatica, 9, 1995

1995

"Computer applications in comparative historical research: The Master & Servant Project at York University (Canada)," History and Computing, 7, 2, 1995 (with Douglas Hay)

1995

"The criminalization of 'free' labour: master and servant in comparative perspective," Slavery & Abolition, 15, 2, August 1994 (with Douglas Hay). Reprinted in P. Lovejoy and N. Rogers (eds.), Unfree Labour in the Atlantic World (Frank Cass, 1995)

1995

"A general-purpose hierarchical coding engine and its application to comparative analysis of statutes," Literary and Linguistic Computing, 8, 1, 1993 (with W. Traves)

1993

"Master and servant in England and the empire: a comparative study," Labour/Le Travail, 31, 1993 (with C. Douglas Hay)

1993

"Canadian railways as manufacturers, 1850-80," Canadian Historical Association, Historical Papers, 1983 (with T.D. Traves). Reprinted in Douglas McCalla, ed., Perspectives on Canadian Economic History, Copp Clark Pitman, 1987 and in Michael J. Piva, ed., A History of Ontario: Selected Readings, Copp Clark Pitman, 1988.

1988

"Workers' conspiracies in Toronto, 1854-72," Labour/Le Travail XIV (Fall 1984)

1984

"King and context," Labour/Le Travailleur IV, 1979

1979

"The class politics of the National Policy, 1872-1933," Journal of Canadian Studies XIV, 3, 1979 (with T.D. Traves)

1979

"Technological change and the building trades," Labour-Management Curriculum Project, OISE, 1976

1976

"Technological change and the workforce," Labour-Management Curriculum Project, OISE, 1975

1975

"The Grand Trunk strike of 1910," Labour-Management Curriculum Project, OISE, 1975

1975

"The network city," Sociological Inquiry XLIII, 3 & 4 (jointly authored), 1973

1973

“Interactive path analysis: a computer programme," Centre for Urban Studies, University of Toronto (jointly authored), 1972

1972

"Uses of egocentric network properties as predictor variables," Centre for Urban Studies, University of Toronto, 1971

1971

Conference Papers

Publication
Year

"Three ships: Poverty, paternalism and politics at mid-century," for presentation to Toronto Legal History Group, March 2010.

2010

"In the Woods: Low law and land surveying in pre-Confederation Charlotte County, New Brunswick," presented to Toronto Legal History Group, April 2009, and Atlantic Canada Studies Conference, Charlottetown, May 2009.

2009

"Low law and low courts: Reconstructing the work of minor tribunals," for presentation to Osgoode Society Symposium on Canadian Legal History, Toronto, October 2009.

2009

"High noon at Campo Bello: Prelude and Fugue," presented to Toronto Legal History Group, March 2008

2008

"Dispensing low law: The business of petty justice in mid-19th-century Charlotte County, New Brunswick," presented to Toronto Legal History Group, March 2007, and to Atlantic Canada Studies Conference, Halifax, May 2007

2007

"Employment and the law in early Nova Scotia," presented to Atlantic Canada Studies Conference, Halifax, May 2007 (with James Muir)

2007

"High law; low law; no law: The trials of David Owen, 1787-1803," presented to Toronto Legal History Group, Toronto, March 2006

2006

"'Unconnected with all mercantile pursuits': The strange career of a trading justice," presented to Toronto Legal History Group, Toronto, March 2005, and to Atlantic Canada Studies Conference, Fredericton, May 2005

2005

“Master and servant in Canada: Symbolic enforcement,” presented to joint annual meetings of Law & Society Association and Canadian Law & Society Association, Vancouver, June 2002

2002

“Taking statutes seriously,” presented to annual meeting of American Law and Society Association, San Diego, November 2002 (with C.D. Hay)

2002

"Automatic detection and visualization of domain-specific similarities in documents: DWIC analysis and its application in the Master & Servant Project," presented to XIII Annual Conference of the Association for History and Computing, Toledo (Spain), July 1998

1998

"`The modern spirit of the law'," presented to Conference on Canadian Legal History, University of Toronto, May 1998

1998

"Master and servant in British North America: Uses of the law," presented to International Conference on Master & Servant in History, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, April 1996

1996

"Master and servant legislation of Atlantic Canada in imperial perspective," presented to Atlantic Canada Law in History Workshop, Dalhousie Law School, Halifax, March 1995

1995

"The imperial dissemination of legal sources: a computer-assisted lexical approach to the comparative analysis of texts," presented to X International Conference of the Association for History and Computing, Montreal, August 1995

1995

"A general-purpose conceptual clustering engine and its application to historical analysis of statutes," presented to IX International Conference of the Association for History and Computing, Nijmegen, August 1994

1994

"Spreading the word: the imperial dissemination of English employment law, 1562-1950---a textual approach," presented as Dean's Lecture, Faculty of Arts, York University, March 1994

1994

“Spreading the word: the imperial dissemination of English employment law, 1562-1950---a textual approach," presented to Colloque international Consensus ex Machina? Association for Linguistic and Literary Computing / Association for Computing in the Humanities, Sorbonne, April 1994

1994

"The Master & Servant Project," presented to Faculty Summer Seminar Series, Osgoode Hall Law School, July 1993

1993

"The Master & Servant Project at York University," presented to Legal History Workshop, University of Toronto, April 1993

1993

"The Master & Servant Project: Computer applications for comparative analysis of statutes," presented to Canadian Historical Association Annual Meeting, Ottawa, June 1993

1993

"The patterned distribution of the terms of Master & Servant legislation in the British empire," presented to Conference on Unfree Labour in the Atlantic World, York University, April 1993

1993

"Computer applications for comparative analysis of statutes," presented to 7th Annual Conference on Computers and Legal Education, University of Toronto, June 1992 (abstract in Information Technology and Legal Education (Vancouver)

1992

"Regulating railway operations: the view from Desjardins Bridge," presented to 3d Canadian Business History Conference/37th Annual Business History Conference, Toronto, March 1991.

1991

"Criminal prosecution of Ontario railway workers for breach of operating rules, 1854-79," presented to the Postgraduate Seminar on Law and Labour in the Commonwealth, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, May 1989

1989

"Faithful servants," in York University, Social Science Division, Work in Progress, 1989; presented to the Workshop in Legal History, University of Toronto, November 1989.

1989

"The trials of David Preston," presented to the Seminar in Advanced Research, York University, September 1988

1988

"Maintaining the way: iron, rolling mills, and the transition to steel rails in Canadian railway operations, 1850-80," presented to the New History Society, Toronto, October 1986, and to the Symposium in Canadian Economic History, University of Ottawa, November 1986.

1986

"Canadian railways as manufacturers, 1850-80," presented to annual meetings, Canadian Historical Association, Vancouver, 1983

1983

"Labour relations and the theory of the state," paper presented to the 1919 Winnipeg General Strike symposium, University of Winnipeg, 1983

1983

"The police court as theatre," presentation to faculty seminar, Centre for Criminology, University of Toronto, 1983

1983

"Trade unions and conspiracy in Toronto, 1850-72," annual meetings of Society for Law and Society, Toronto, 1982",Trade unions and conspiracy in Toronto

1982

"Labour and management in Canadian railway operations: the first decade," Commonwealth Labour History Conference, Warwick, England, 1981 (jointly authored)

1981

"Law and authority in a nineteenth-century Canadian court," guest lecture series, University of Winnipeg, 1981

1981

"The law of master and servant in pre-Confederation Canada," conference on Class and Culture, McGill University, 1980

1980

"Corporatism, Liberalism and Mackenzie King," conference on Political Thought in English Canada, York University, 1978

1978

"Factors in the development of Canadian industrial relations policy," conference on Canada and the Third World, University of Toronto, 1978

1978

"Canadian Liberalism and industrial peace," Canadian Political Science Association annual meetings, Fredericton, 1977

1977

"Militant trade unionism, ideology and the state: the Stratford strikes of 1933," Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association annual meetings, Toronto, 1974

1974

Conference Proceedings

Publication
Year

"A general-purpose hierarchical coding engine," presented to joint conference of Association for Computing in the Humanities / Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing, Oxford, April 1992; lengthy abstract published in ALL/CACH 92 Proceedings (Oxford University Press) and electronically on the Internet

1992

"Law and railway accidents," presented to the Canadian Law in History Conference, Carleton University, June 1987

1987


The common theme that runs through much of my teaching, research and other professional activities is the interplay of law, employment relations, and political economy.

My publications include books and articles on Canadian labour and legal history. My current research project is a study of labour-management arbitration in Ontario to 1975.

Degrees

Certificate of Studies in Canadian Law, Osgoode Hall Law School
Ph.D., University of Toronto
M.A., University of Toronto
B.A. (Hons.), University of Toronto

Professional Leadership

I practice as a labour-management mediator and arbitrator.

Research Interests

Canadian Studies , Employment and Labour, Political economy, Legal History, Social Science

Current Research Projects

Master & Servant Project Database Guide

    Summary:

    (with Douglas Hay) To accompany the digitization of the M&S Project statute collection.

A history of labour arbitration in Ontario

All Publications


Book Chapters

Publication
Year

"The law of rules: Prosecuting railway workers in mid-19th-century Ontario," in Jim Phillips, Roy McMurtry and John Saywell, eds., Essays in the History of Canadian Law X: A Tribute to Peter Oliver (Toronto: Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History and the University of Toronto Press, 2008).

2008

“Canada 1670-1935: Symbolic enforcement in Loyalist North America” (in Masters, Servants and Magistrates, above)

2004

“Introduction” (in Masters, Servants and Magistrates, above, with C.D. Hay)

2004

“`The modern spirit of the law': Blake, Mowat, and the Breaches of Contract Act, 1877," in Baker & Phillips, eds., Essays in the History of Canadian Law VIII, in Honour of R.C.B. Risk, University of Toronto Press, 1999

1999

"Labour and Management on the Great Western Railway" (in Labouring Lives, above, 1995)",Labour and Management on the Great Western Railway"

1995

"Introduction" (in Labouring Lives, above, 1995)

1995

“The Criminalization of 'Free' Labour: Master and Servant in Comparative Perspective," in P. Lovejoy and N. Rogers (eds.), Unfree Labour in the Atlantic World (Frank Cass, 1995) (with C.D. Hay)

1995

"The meaning of misadventure: The Baptiste Creek railway disaster of 1854 and its aftermath," in Roger Hall et al., eds., Patterns of the Past: Interpreting Ontario's History, Dundurn Press for the Ontario Historical Society, 1988

1988

"Dimensions of paternalism: discipline and culture in Canadian railway operations in the 1850s," in Craig Heron and Robert Storey, eds., On The Job, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1986 (with T.D. Traves)

1986

"Law and ideology: the Toronto Police Court, 1850-80," in D.H. Flaherty, ed., Essays in the History of Canadian Law II, University of Toronto Press, 1983

1983

"The law of master and servant in mid-nineteenth-century Ontario," in D.H. Flaherty, ed., Essays in the History of Canadian Law I, University of Toronto Press, 1981

1981

"Community ties and support systems: from intimacy to support," in L.S. Bourne, ed., The Form of Cities in Central Canada, University of Toronto Press, 1973 (jointly authored)

1973

Books

Publication
Year

Petty Justice: Low law and the sessions system in Charlotte County, New Brunswick, 1785-1867 (University of Toronto Press for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History) 2014

2014

Masters, Servants and Magistrates in Britain and the Empire, 1562-1955, University of North Carolina Press for the American Society for Legal History, 2004 (Co-editor with C.D. Hay/Contributor)

2004

Labouring Lives: Work and Workers in 19th-Century Ontario, University of Toronto Press for the Ontario Historical Studies Series, 1995 (Editor/Contributor)

1995

"An Impartial Umpire' - Industrial Relations and the Canadian State, University of Toronto Press, 1980

1980

Journal Articles

Publication
Year

"Automatic detection and visualization of domain-specific similarities in documents: DWIC analysis and its application in the Master & Servant Project," published on CD-ROM in F.J.A Perez et al., eds., La Historia en una nueva frontera/History in a new frontier (Digibis: Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 1998)

1998

"A general-purpose conceptual clustering engine and its application to historical analysis of statutes," Cahiers Vereniging voor Geschiedenis en Informatica, 9, 1995

1995

"Computer applications in comparative historical research: The Master & Servant Project at York University (Canada)," History and Computing, 7, 2, 1995 (with Douglas Hay)

1995

"The criminalization of 'free' labour: master and servant in comparative perspective," Slavery & Abolition, 15, 2, August 1994 (with Douglas Hay). Reprinted in P. Lovejoy and N. Rogers (eds.), Unfree Labour in the Atlantic World (Frank Cass, 1995)

1995

"A general-purpose hierarchical coding engine and its application to comparative analysis of statutes," Literary and Linguistic Computing, 8, 1, 1993 (with W. Traves)

1993

"Master and servant in England and the empire: a comparative study," Labour/Le Travail, 31, 1993 (with C. Douglas Hay)

1993

"Canadian railways as manufacturers, 1850-80," Canadian Historical Association, Historical Papers, 1983 (with T.D. Traves). Reprinted in Douglas McCalla, ed., Perspectives on Canadian Economic History, Copp Clark Pitman, 1987 and in Michael J. Piva, ed., A History of Ontario: Selected Readings, Copp Clark Pitman, 1988.

1988

"Workers' conspiracies in Toronto, 1854-72," Labour/Le Travail XIV (Fall 1984)

1984

"King and context," Labour/Le Travailleur IV, 1979

1979

"The class politics of the National Policy, 1872-1933," Journal of Canadian Studies XIV, 3, 1979 (with T.D. Traves)

1979

"Technological change and the building trades," Labour-Management Curriculum Project, OISE, 1976

1976

"Technological change and the workforce," Labour-Management Curriculum Project, OISE, 1975

1975

"The Grand Trunk strike of 1910," Labour-Management Curriculum Project, OISE, 1975

1975

"The network city," Sociological Inquiry XLIII, 3 & 4 (jointly authored), 1973

1973

“Interactive path analysis: a computer programme," Centre for Urban Studies, University of Toronto (jointly authored), 1972

1972

"Uses of egocentric network properties as predictor variables," Centre for Urban Studies, University of Toronto, 1971

1971

Conference Papers

Publication
Year

"Three ships: Poverty, paternalism and politics at mid-century," for presentation to Toronto Legal History Group, March 2010.

2010

"In the Woods: Low law and land surveying in pre-Confederation Charlotte County, New Brunswick," presented to Toronto Legal History Group, April 2009, and Atlantic Canada Studies Conference, Charlottetown, May 2009.

2009

"Low law and low courts: Reconstructing the work of minor tribunals," for presentation to Osgoode Society Symposium on Canadian Legal History, Toronto, October 2009.

2009

"High noon at Campo Bello: Prelude and Fugue," presented to Toronto Legal History Group, March 2008

2008

"Dispensing low law: The business of petty justice in mid-19th-century Charlotte County, New Brunswick," presented to Toronto Legal History Group, March 2007, and to Atlantic Canada Studies Conference, Halifax, May 2007

2007

"Employment and the law in early Nova Scotia," presented to Atlantic Canada Studies Conference, Halifax, May 2007 (with James Muir)

2007

"High law; low law; no law: The trials of David Owen, 1787-1803," presented to Toronto Legal History Group, Toronto, March 2006

2006

"'Unconnected with all mercantile pursuits': The strange career of a trading justice," presented to Toronto Legal History Group, Toronto, March 2005, and to Atlantic Canada Studies Conference, Fredericton, May 2005

2005

“Master and servant in Canada: Symbolic enforcement,” presented to joint annual meetings of Law & Society Association and Canadian Law & Society Association, Vancouver, June 2002

2002

“Taking statutes seriously,” presented to annual meeting of American Law and Society Association, San Diego, November 2002 (with C.D. Hay)

2002

"Automatic detection and visualization of domain-specific similarities in documents: DWIC analysis and its application in the Master & Servant Project," presented to XIII Annual Conference of the Association for History and Computing, Toledo (Spain), July 1998

1998

"`The modern spirit of the law'," presented to Conference on Canadian Legal History, University of Toronto, May 1998

1998

"Master and servant in British North America: Uses of the law," presented to International Conference on Master & Servant in History, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, April 1996

1996

"Master and servant legislation of Atlantic Canada in imperial perspective," presented to Atlantic Canada Law in History Workshop, Dalhousie Law School, Halifax, March 1995

1995

"The imperial dissemination of legal sources: a computer-assisted lexical approach to the comparative analysis of texts," presented to X International Conference of the Association for History and Computing, Montreal, August 1995

1995

"A general-purpose conceptual clustering engine and its application to historical analysis of statutes," presented to IX International Conference of the Association for History and Computing, Nijmegen, August 1994

1994

"Spreading the word: the imperial dissemination of English employment law, 1562-1950---a textual approach," presented as Dean's Lecture, Faculty of Arts, York University, March 1994

1994

“Spreading the word: the imperial dissemination of English employment law, 1562-1950---a textual approach," presented to Colloque international Consensus ex Machina? Association for Linguistic and Literary Computing / Association for Computing in the Humanities, Sorbonne, April 1994

1994

"The Master & Servant Project," presented to Faculty Summer Seminar Series, Osgoode Hall Law School, July 1993

1993

"The Master & Servant Project at York University," presented to Legal History Workshop, University of Toronto, April 1993

1993

"The Master & Servant Project: Computer applications for comparative analysis of statutes," presented to Canadian Historical Association Annual Meeting, Ottawa, June 1993

1993

"The patterned distribution of the terms of Master & Servant legislation in the British empire," presented to Conference on Unfree Labour in the Atlantic World, York University, April 1993

1993

"Computer applications for comparative analysis of statutes," presented to 7th Annual Conference on Computers and Legal Education, University of Toronto, June 1992 (abstract in Information Technology and Legal Education (Vancouver)

1992

"Regulating railway operations: the view from Desjardins Bridge," presented to 3d Canadian Business History Conference/37th Annual Business History Conference, Toronto, March 1991.

1991

"Criminal prosecution of Ontario railway workers for breach of operating rules, 1854-79," presented to the Postgraduate Seminar on Law and Labour in the Commonwealth, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, May 1989

1989

"Faithful servants," in York University, Social Science Division, Work in Progress, 1989; presented to the Workshop in Legal History, University of Toronto, November 1989.

1989

"The trials of David Preston," presented to the Seminar in Advanced Research, York University, September 1988

1988

"Maintaining the way: iron, rolling mills, and the transition to steel rails in Canadian railway operations, 1850-80," presented to the New History Society, Toronto, October 1986, and to the Symposium in Canadian Economic History, University of Ottawa, November 1986.

1986

"Canadian railways as manufacturers, 1850-80," presented to annual meetings, Canadian Historical Association, Vancouver, 1983

1983

"Labour relations and the theory of the state," paper presented to the 1919 Winnipeg General Strike symposium, University of Winnipeg, 1983

1983

"The police court as theatre," presentation to faculty seminar, Centre for Criminology, University of Toronto, 1983

1983

"Trade unions and conspiracy in Toronto, 1850-72," annual meetings of Society for Law and Society, Toronto, 1982",Trade unions and conspiracy in Toronto

1982

"Labour and management in Canadian railway operations: the first decade," Commonwealth Labour History Conference, Warwick, England, 1981 (jointly authored)

1981

"Law and authority in a nineteenth-century Canadian court," guest lecture series, University of Winnipeg, 1981

1981

"The law of master and servant in pre-Confederation Canada," conference on Class and Culture, McGill University, 1980

1980

"Corporatism, Liberalism and Mackenzie King," conference on Political Thought in English Canada, York University, 1978

1978

"Factors in the development of Canadian industrial relations policy," conference on Canada and the Third World, University of Toronto, 1978

1978

"Canadian Liberalism and industrial peace," Canadian Political Science Association annual meetings, Fredericton, 1977

1977

"Militant trade unionism, ideology and the state: the Stratford strikes of 1933," Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association annual meetings, Toronto, 1974

1974

Conference Proceedings

Publication
Year

"A general-purpose hierarchical coding engine," presented to joint conference of Association for Computing in the Humanities / Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing, Oxford, April 1992; lengthy abstract published in ALL/CACH 92 Proceedings (Oxford University Press) and electronically on the Internet

1992

"Law and railway accidents," presented to the Canadian Law in History Conference, Carleton University, June 1987

1987