smmalik


Sadia Malik

Photo of Sadia Malik

Department of Economics

Assistant Professor

Office: Vari Hall, 1094
Phone: 4167362100 Ext: 20532
Email: smmalik@yorku.ca


I am an Assistant Professor in the Department of Economics at York University. I hold a PhD in Economics from Kansas State University, USA. My research interests are in Development Economics and Health Economics.

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I hold a PhD degree in Economics from USA (with specialization in Econometrics and Economic Growth and Development), and have more than 15 years of professional experience in pedagogy and applied research. Over the past ten years of my affiliation with York University, I have taught a multitude of core and specialized courses in economics. These include introductory Micro and Macroeconomics, Intermediate Micro and Macroeconomics, Managerial Economics and Strategy, Use of Economic Data, Mathematical Economics, Health Economics, and International Economic Development and Policy.

My prior professional experience is quite diverse that includes teaching, research, grant writing, project management, and policy advocacy. Prior to my appointment at York University in 2011, I worked as Director, Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre- a premier think tank based in Islamabad, Pakistan set up by an internationally acclaimed development economist and practitioner, Mahbub ul Haq who was the chief architect of the Human Development Index and pioneer of annual human development reports published by the United Nations Development Programme. At the centre, I was involved in conducting and supervising research and writing of annual reports on various themes related to human development in South Asia.

As an independent researcher and consultant, I have won several research grants from various international development organizations including the World Bank, International Labor Organization, and the Department for International Development, U.K.

Degrees

PhD, Kansas State University, USA

Research Interests

Economics , Health, International Development, Human Development

Current Research Projects

The Effect of Retirement on Physical and Mental Wellbeing of the Elderly Population in Canada

    Summary:

    Retirement represents a major transition in life as it entails lifestyle changes, particularly in relation to physical mobility, mental engagement, dietary habits, and social engagement, which can affect the physical and mental wellbeing of the aging population. With this rationale, several studies have investigated the causal effect of retirement on various mental and physical wellbeing indicators. Interestingly, these studies find conflicting evidence: positive effects stem from continued physical mobility, a stable flow of regular income, increased life satisfaction, and the preservation of self-esteem through involvement in productive societal roles; negative effects tend to arise from work related stress and a reduction in leisure and family time. The consensual evidence on the subject is however limited. Furthermore, almost all studies relate to a nonCanadian context (USA, Australia, Japan, and some European countries), but these too are limited by small samples that are not always representative at thenational level, lack of attention to reverse causality in the relationship between retirement and health, and lack of adequate controls due to data limitations. There are only three studies pertaining to Canada which are rather outdated and fail to adequately address the reverse causality and selfselection problems in order to derive unbiased estimates of the causal effect of retirement on physical and mental wellbeing.

    In this research project, we utilize data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), which is nationally representative and consists of information on more than 50,000 senior citizens who are followed in subsequent waves of data collection. This data set allows us to fill gaps in the literature on retirement and its impact on wellbeing in at least three important ways. First, it follows individuals before, during, and after their retirement, thereby permitting to study the transition in wellbeing over time with and without retirement. Second, the longitudinal characteristics of the data allow us to control for unobserved individual level characteristics that might be related to both wellbeing and retirement. Third, and most importantly, the data set contains extensive information on retirement that includes, in particular, the reasons for retirement, enabling us to address the self-selection problem in ways not possible by earlier data sets. This information is critical for us to separate between respondents who retired due to health-related reasons and those who did not, thereby affording us a unique opportunity to isolate the exogenous source of variation in wellbeing. In employing the CLSA data, we propose to conduct a multivariate analysis of the effect of retirement on various indicators of physical and mental health such as the ability to move around and function independently, morbidity, and mental health indicators of the elderly population while controlling for other factors such as age, race, gender, socioeconomic status, and marital status that may affect the health of the population under study. We also propose to investigate the differential impact of retirement on health by gender, type of employment, type of retirement (full versus partial), and the education level of the retirees.

    Although Canada does not have a mandatory retirement age, there are incentives built into the income security programs of Canada such as the National Pension Plan and Old Age Security that encourage retirement at a particular age. The findings of the study will help policy makers justify these incentives or provide an argument for altering the existing incentives. The findings may also be useful for individuals in deciding whether to choose to retire or continue to work.

    See more
    Role: Co-investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Jul   Year: 2021

    End Date:
      Month: Jul   Year: 2023

    Collaborator: Ida Ferrara
    Collaborator Institution: York University
    Collaborator Role: Principal Investigator

    Funders:
    Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada
From Territorial Security to Human Security: The Role of Public Health in National and Global Security Frameworks.

    Summary:

    In this research project, I aim to answer the following questions:
    1) Why has the human security paradigm with its emphasis on public health not been institutionalized in the national and global security frameworks?
    2) The Covid-19 pandemic is a stark reminder of the fact that the nature of threats to security has changed. What is the scope of institutionalizing health security in national and international security paradigms today?
    3) What is Canada’s role in the context of shifting global order to institutionalize global health security?

    See more
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Jun   Year: 2020

    End Date:
      Month: Jun   Year: 2021

    Funders:
    Dahdaleh Institute of Global Health Research, Canada
An Analysis of Equity Issues in Public Spending on Mother and Newborn Child Health in Pakistan.

    See more
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2011

    End Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2013

The Productivity Gains of Rehabilitating the Blinds in Pakistan

    See more
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Jan   Year: 2011

    End Date:
      Month: Apr   Year: 2011

Growth, Employment and Poverty in Current Financial Crisis in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh: Exploring the Nexus and Estimating the Impact of the Crisis

    See more
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Mar   Year: 2010

    End Date:
      Month: Mar   Year: 2011

The Impact of Climate Change on Human Health in Pakistan: Evidence Based Policy Advocacy

    See more
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Aug   Year: 2010

    End Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2010

A Situation Analysis of Residential Facilities for Working Women at/near their Work Places

    See more
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2009

    End Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2010

Journal Articles

Publication
Year

“Reconceptualizing Health Security in post-COVID-19 World (with Amy Barlow and Benjamin Johnson)” BMJ Global Health. Volume 6, Issue 7. 2021.

2021

“Reform of Primary Health Care in Pakistan.” (with Zulfiqar Bhutta) The Lancet. Volume 392. Issue 10156. October 20, 2018.

2018

Equity in the use of public services for mother and newborn child health care in Pakistan: a utilization incidence analysis. International Journal for Equity in Health (2016) 15:120 Go To Paper

2016

Mapping Vulnerability to Climate Change and its Repercussions on Human Health in Pakistan (with Haroon Awan and Niazullah Khan. Globalization and Health 2012, 8:31. Go To Paper

2012

The Economic Burden of Blindness in Pakistan: A Socio-economic and Policy Imperative for Poverty Reduction Strategies. (with Haroon Awan and Niazullah Khan) Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012, Volume 60; Issue 5. Pages: 358-364. Go To Paper

2012

Horizontal Inequalities and Violent Conflict in Pakistan: Is there a link? Economic and Political Weekly. 2009. Vol. XLIV No. 34.Go To Paper

2009

Research Reports

Publication
Year

Equity Issues in Public Spending on Mother, Newborn and Child Health in Pakistan” (with Yasin Janjua). Published by Research and Advocacy Fund, Department for International Development, U.K. Go To Research Report

2013

Growth, Employment and Poverty in Current Financial Crisis in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh: Exploring the Nexus and Estimating the Impact of the Crisis” (with Yasin Janjua). 2011. Published by South Asia Network of Economic Research Institutes (SANEI), Bangladesh). Research Working Paper. No. 11-07.

2011

Human Development in South Asia 2008: "Harnessing Technology for Human Development in South Asia(with the team at Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre). Published by Oxford University Press.

2008

Human Development in South Asia 2007: "Human Development in South Asia: A Ten Year Review” (with the team at Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre). Published by Oxford University Press, Karachi.

2007


Current Courses

Term Course Number Section Title Type
Summer 2022 AP/ECON3569 3.0 A Economic Policy in Developing Countries LECT



I am an Assistant Professor in the Department of Economics at York University. I hold a PhD in Economics from Kansas State University, USA. My research interests are in Development Economics and Health Economics.

I hold a PhD degree in Economics from USA (with specialization in Econometrics and Economic Growth and Development), and have more than 15 years of professional experience in pedagogy and applied research. Over the past ten years of my affiliation with York University, I have taught a multitude of core and specialized courses in economics. These include introductory Micro and Macroeconomics, Intermediate Micro and Macroeconomics, Managerial Economics and Strategy, Use of Economic Data, Mathematical Economics, Health Economics, and International Economic Development and Policy.

My prior professional experience is quite diverse that includes teaching, research, grant writing, project management, and policy advocacy. Prior to my appointment at York University in 2011, I worked as Director, Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre- a premier think tank based in Islamabad, Pakistan set up by an internationally acclaimed development economist and practitioner, Mahbub ul Haq who was the chief architect of the Human Development Index and pioneer of annual human development reports published by the United Nations Development Programme. At the centre, I was involved in conducting and supervising research and writing of annual reports on various themes related to human development in South Asia.

As an independent researcher and consultant, I have won several research grants from various international development organizations including the World Bank, International Labor Organization, and the Department for International Development, U.K.

Degrees

PhD, Kansas State University, USA

Research Interests

Economics , Health, International Development, Human Development

Current Research Projects

The Effect of Retirement on Physical and Mental Wellbeing of the Elderly Population in Canada

    Summary:

    Retirement represents a major transition in life as it entails lifestyle changes, particularly in relation to physical mobility, mental engagement, dietary habits, and social engagement, which can affect the physical and mental wellbeing of the aging population. With this rationale, several studies have investigated the causal effect of retirement on various mental and physical wellbeing indicators. Interestingly, these studies find conflicting evidence: positive effects stem from continued physical mobility, a stable flow of regular income, increased life satisfaction, and the preservation of self-esteem through involvement in productive societal roles; negative effects tend to arise from work related stress and a reduction in leisure and family time. The consensual evidence on the subject is however limited. Furthermore, almost all studies relate to a nonCanadian context (USA, Australia, Japan, and some European countries), but these too are limited by small samples that are not always representative at thenational level, lack of attention to reverse causality in the relationship between retirement and health, and lack of adequate controls due to data limitations. There are only three studies pertaining to Canada which are rather outdated and fail to adequately address the reverse causality and selfselection problems in order to derive unbiased estimates of the causal effect of retirement on physical and mental wellbeing.

    In this research project, we utilize data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), which is nationally representative and consists of information on more than 50,000 senior citizens who are followed in subsequent waves of data collection. This data set allows us to fill gaps in the literature on retirement and its impact on wellbeing in at least three important ways. First, it follows individuals before, during, and after their retirement, thereby permitting to study the transition in wellbeing over time with and without retirement. Second, the longitudinal characteristics of the data allow us to control for unobserved individual level characteristics that might be related to both wellbeing and retirement. Third, and most importantly, the data set contains extensive information on retirement that includes, in particular, the reasons for retirement, enabling us to address the self-selection problem in ways not possible by earlier data sets. This information is critical for us to separate between respondents who retired due to health-related reasons and those who did not, thereby affording us a unique opportunity to isolate the exogenous source of variation in wellbeing. In employing the CLSA data, we propose to conduct a multivariate analysis of the effect of retirement on various indicators of physical and mental health such as the ability to move around and function independently, morbidity, and mental health indicators of the elderly population while controlling for other factors such as age, race, gender, socioeconomic status, and marital status that may affect the health of the population under study. We also propose to investigate the differential impact of retirement on health by gender, type of employment, type of retirement (full versus partial), and the education level of the retirees.

    Although Canada does not have a mandatory retirement age, there are incentives built into the income security programs of Canada such as the National Pension Plan and Old Age Security that encourage retirement at a particular age. The findings of the study will help policy makers justify these incentives or provide an argument for altering the existing incentives. The findings may also be useful for individuals in deciding whether to choose to retire or continue to work.

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Co-investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Jul   Year: 2021

    End Date:
      Month: Jul   Year: 2023

    Collaborator: Ida Ferrara
    Collaborator Institution: York University
    Collaborator Role: Principal Investigator

    Funders:
    Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada
From Territorial Security to Human Security: The Role of Public Health in National and Global Security Frameworks.

    Summary:

    In this research project, I aim to answer the following questions:
    1) Why has the human security paradigm with its emphasis on public health not been institutionalized in the national and global security frameworks?
    2) The Covid-19 pandemic is a stark reminder of the fact that the nature of threats to security has changed. What is the scope of institutionalizing health security in national and international security paradigms today?
    3) What is Canada’s role in the context of shifting global order to institutionalize global health security?

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Jun   Year: 2020

    End Date:
      Month: Jun   Year: 2021

    Funders:
    Dahdaleh Institute of Global Health Research, Canada
An Analysis of Equity Issues in Public Spending on Mother and Newborn Child Health in Pakistan.

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2011

    End Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2013

The Productivity Gains of Rehabilitating the Blinds in Pakistan

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Jan   Year: 2011

    End Date:
      Month: Apr   Year: 2011

Growth, Employment and Poverty in Current Financial Crisis in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh: Exploring the Nexus and Estimating the Impact of the Crisis

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Mar   Year: 2010

    End Date:
      Month: Mar   Year: 2011

The Impact of Climate Change on Human Health in Pakistan: Evidence Based Policy Advocacy

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Aug   Year: 2010

    End Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2010

A Situation Analysis of Residential Facilities for Working Women at/near their Work Places

    Project Type: Funded
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Start Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2009

    End Date:
      Month: Dec   Year: 2010

All Publications


Journal Articles

Publication
Year

“Reconceptualizing Health Security in post-COVID-19 World (with Amy Barlow and Benjamin Johnson)” BMJ Global Health. Volume 6, Issue 7. 2021.

2021

“Reform of Primary Health Care in Pakistan.” (with Zulfiqar Bhutta) The Lancet. Volume 392. Issue 10156. October 20, 2018.

2018

Equity in the use of public services for mother and newborn child health care in Pakistan: a utilization incidence analysis. International Journal for Equity in Health (2016) 15:120 Go To Paper

2016

Mapping Vulnerability to Climate Change and its Repercussions on Human Health in Pakistan (with Haroon Awan and Niazullah Khan. Globalization and Health 2012, 8:31. Go To Paper

2012

The Economic Burden of Blindness in Pakistan: A Socio-economic and Policy Imperative for Poverty Reduction Strategies. (with Haroon Awan and Niazullah Khan) Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012, Volume 60; Issue 5. Pages: 358-364. Go To Paper

2012

Horizontal Inequalities and Violent Conflict in Pakistan: Is there a link? Economic and Political Weekly. 2009. Vol. XLIV No. 34.Go To Paper

2009

Research Reports

Publication
Year

Equity Issues in Public Spending on Mother, Newborn and Child Health in Pakistan” (with Yasin Janjua). Published by Research and Advocacy Fund, Department for International Development, U.K. Go To Research Report

2013

Growth, Employment and Poverty in Current Financial Crisis in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh: Exploring the Nexus and Estimating the Impact of the Crisis” (with Yasin Janjua). 2011. Published by South Asia Network of Economic Research Institutes (SANEI), Bangladesh). Research Working Paper. No. 11-07.

2011

Human Development in South Asia 2008: "Harnessing Technology for Human Development in South Asia(with the team at Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre). Published by Oxford University Press.

2008

Human Development in South Asia 2007: "Human Development in South Asia: A Ten Year Review” (with the team at Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre). Published by Oxford University Press, Karachi.

2007


Current Courses

Term Course Number Section Title Type
Summer 2022 AP/ECON3569 3.0 A Economic Policy in Developing Countries LECT